What is the unchanging “I”, what does it mean?

What is the unchanging “I”, what does it mean?

June 27, 2021 Off By Felso

According to Herbart, if there are no external objects, there are no sensations.

Therefore, what exists in appearance is the effect of the object reflected on the senses. It is clear that there are as many entities as there are appearances. Every particular situation indicates a particular being. This is due to the fact that every being has a position relative to itself. The relationships between these types of entities arise from their comparison with each other. Experiment informs man of the existence of a becoming, of a change, and the task of science is to explain this being and to find its laws. In order to achieve this, the concept of I in the person must also be clarified.

Herbart defends the view that there is only one faculty in the self and argues that the contradiction between the subject and the object will be removed in this way. For him, it is only thought that seems to be opposed to the object. The thought that changes according to the nature of the object preserves the Self as it is and prevents it from changing. The source of the changes in perceptions is this unchanging I. Therefore, consciousness is the sum of the relationships that this unchanging Self maintains in other real beings. Its true source is thought. The concept of self cannot be the basis of philosophy because of this feature.

Trying to solve the problem of change, Herbart proposes a new idea. According to him, there are three kinds of change, one for internal reason, the other for external reason, and the last one for no reason. Inner cause gives birth to freedom, external cause creates uncertainty, and causelessness creates secrecy. However, they do not have a definite solution and also have some difficulties in terms of logic. More clearly, there is no real change, there is no. According to Herbart, experiment shows the existence of a becoming, a change, but it is not enough to grasp the underlying facts. These facts are simple and unchanging entities.