What is Theory (Theory), What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
knowledge in the field of thought. The term practice, which expresses the meaning of knowledge in the field of action, is its opposite. It should not be confused with the term assumption, meaning knowledge that cannot be passed into action. The theory may or may not have been passed on to the field of action, but it differs from the assumption as it often contains the accepted meaning by being regarded as passable. On the other hand, it is also used to mean methodical knowledge and precise knowledge; In this sense, it is said that “what you say is very theoretical, it does not fit in practice”. Whereas, scientific theory is theory that can be controlled by practice. Theory is the awareness and synthesis of human experience. It is the intellectual reflection of objective reality on human consciousness.
In fact, theory and practice (theory and practice) are philosophical concepts that express the mental and material aspects of the process of knowing. This process of knowing also includes the process of transforming and changing nature and society. Therefore, it is a socio-historical process. The practical efforts of people are practice, their intellectual efforts are theory. In this respect, these two human phenomena, which are in opposition to each other, are also tightly dependent on each other. Theory arises from practice and, by returning to practice, affects and develops it. Theory occurs with and within practice. In dialectical materialism, this is called the unity and inseparability of theory and practice. Western equivalent of theory, theory, Yu. It is derived from theorein, meaning to look carefully. Ancient Greek philosophy, unlike other Ancient Age ideas that realized the meaning of knowing for benefit, pursued the purpose of knowing in order to know and realized as a philosophy of theory. This is a very important step in human thinking. Therefore, theory is defined in classical philosophy as pure knowledge, disinterested and independent of practice. It also gives the meaning of teaching, for example when we say “Darwinian theory” we use it in this sense. In this sense, metaphysicians regard it as a purely thought-based knowledge, whereas there is no purely thought-based knowledge. Darwin made numerous experiments and observations while establishing his theory.
Theoretical activity is based on and supported by practical activity; that is why it is in close dependence on social practice. It is true, however, that metaphysical theories are detached from objective reality and established by pure thought, however, upon closer examination, it is seen that even these imaginary theories are fantastic and distorted reflections of objective reality. The reason why such imaginary theories arose is because manual and mental labors were separated from each other, and theory and practice became social activities that were relatively independent of each other. These fanciful theories can never be tried and verified by practice, and therefore remain contrary to objective reality, and therefore to reality. “Social theories arise only when the development of the material life of society puts new tasks before society. But once they arise, they become a material force that ensures the fulfillment of the new tasks posed by the development of the material life of society. It is then that the whole significance of the organizing, mobilizing and transforming roles of new theories becomes apparent. Obviously, if new social theories are emerging, it is because they are directly necessary to society. For without their organizing, moving and transforming effects, it is impossible to solve the irretrievable problems brought about by the development of the material life of society.
The unity of theory and practice is a dialectical imperative. Because without theoretical thought, two natural facts cannot be related to each other or the existing relationship between them cannot be understood. “It is not enough for thought to turn towards realization, realization must also rise to thought”. The term theory is defined as follows in the Glossary of Sociological Terms: “A general order of knowledge and explanation, which is put forward at any stage of the process of acquiring knowledge and whose validity and reliability have been determined by scientific method”.