What is Truth and Reality? Difference Between Truth and Reality

What is Truth and Reality? Difference Between Truth and Reality

June 26, 2021 Off By Felso

The concepts of truth and reality are concepts that are used frequently and even interchangeably in our daily life. But these two are not the same thing on a philosophical ground.

According to the meaning of the word, reality is everything that exists. In other words, it is the truth itself, the truth.

Accuracy, with its classical definition, is the conformity of knowledge to its object.


Reality, in its general meaning, the being that has an objective existence in the external world, all that exists, all that exists; It is everything that exists independently of consciousness, of the knowing human mind. Truth, in its general sense, is the property of a proposition, belief, thought or opinion to be true according to or depending on some basis or criterion.

The term ‘reality’, which can be defined in this way as a general framework, has sometimes undergone an expansion of meaning and sometimes a narrowing of meaning in the history of philosophy. Within the subject-object relationship, it can be argued that everything that is independent of the subject itself and that can or cannot be discussed by the subject is ‘reality’, so the term encompasses all that exists.

The distinctive feature of the concept of ‘Reality’ is that its bearer is ‘Being’. That is, one cannot ‘tell the truth’ but can construct propositions that express the truth. In other words, man speaks ‘truth’, ‘true’ is an expression of reality that fits or reflects it. In short, the clear distinction of the two terms is that the bearer of ‘reality’ is Being, and the bearer of ‘truth’ is expressions. The philosophical problem here is the nature of the relationship between the two.


The bearer of ‘truth’ is proposition, theory, and the like. From an epistemological point of view, truth is a property of propositions and theories, in other words, linguistic elements.

“What is truth?” The answer to the question constitutes a theory of truth. Traditionally, this question has been answered as “conformity of knowledge to its object” or “propositions and theories that correspond to reality”.

This argument, whose foundations can be found in Plato, is known as the “theory of conformity” and finds its first clear expression in Aristotle’s “Metaphysics”.6 This approach is the theoretical equivalent of the term “truth” in everyday language. All statements in everyday life that claim to be true implicitly assume this assertion.


Reality contains different meanings according to the types of information. For example, according to scientific knowledge, reality is related to entities that can be tested and is expressed by a legality based on generalizations of facts (induction). In philosophical knowledge, elements of mind that transcend the senses are also accepted for reality. Based on this situation, it can be said that there is abstract reality as well as concrete reality. Concrete reality is material realities that exist independently of the human mind and whose existence is not dependent on humans. Abstract reality, on the other hand, is the realities that depend on the mental and spiritual aspects of human beings. A sycamore tree can be an example of concrete reality, and mathematical basic propositions can be shown as an example of abstract reality.

The fact that reality points to a state of knowledge reveals the concept of truth. If a spoken word coincides with reality, it is said to be “true”. The fact that something is true is related to the fact that it reflects some or all of the reality it points to.

Authenticity is a concept that has two meanings: factual (content) and formal (formal) validation. factual verification; It is the agreement of a judgment or proposition with reality, that is, with the object to which it is directed. “The Earth rotates both on its axis and around the Sun.” His judgment is true because it agrees with reality. This is also called information accuracy. Formal verification, which is another meaning of truth, is the state of thought not contradicting itself and being consistent. “The sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180 degrees.” is true because its judgment is self-consistent. This situation is expressed as the logic line.

For example:
For factual accuracy
If the water is heated enough, it boils.
For formal accuracy:
Dogs do not have gills.
Babi is also a dog.
So Babi is not gill-free.

Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and “Introduction to Sociology” (Ömer YILDIRIM); Other Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM), MEB Philosophy Textbook