What is Truth, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
Truth is that which exists concretely and objectively. Truth is the reflection of reality in consciousness. The idiom ‘true’ expresses what is true and what is related to the truth. It is expressed in Hegel, who is the culmination of idealist philosophy starting from Ancient Greek Eleaism and continuing to the present day: “The truth is the rational one”. The Eleans denied becoming and argued that the only reality is ‘being’. According to them, everything we perceive with our senses was an illusion, an image. All that existed was illusion, appearance. Only one and universal ‘being’ was real, but being did not exist because the real could not exist. He could only be known by reason, known by reason.
Developing this argument of the Eleans, Plato concluded that the sensations could never give us information. For example, when we say “it’s hot today”, the temperature; coldness, hardness, bitterness, etc. We obtained it by comparing it with our senses. So we were making a classification and performing a rational operation. Our knowledge, then, was conceptual, not sensual, and therefore rational. They were the product of our minds. We knew nothing about any object other than the concepts we used to express that object. Every word was a concept, a universal. What did we mean when we said “that is the tree”? ‘tree’ was a concept, a universal. So what was the tree itself? It was a leaf, it was a fruit, it was a dive, it was long, it was short, etc. But all these were concepts, that is, universals. Other than that, we knew nothing. It was absurd to say that something we didn’t know existed. What we knew and therefore existed were only concepts, generals (universals or universals).
As can be seen, idealist philosophy; From the Eleatics to Berkeley and Hegel, he does not say “there is no external world”, he says “it exists, but it is not real”. In fact, this is a conceptual illusion, what is not real should not exist, and what does not exist does not exist. The whole premise of idealism is that it gives a completely opposite meaning to the term ‘real’, according to them, the real is ‘universal, conceptual, rational’. For example, there are individual horses in the universe, but there is no universal horse. According to idealism, the real reality is not the individual horses, but the conceptual horse that will always exist on these individual horses, which are temporary. Idealists define the ‘real’ as ‘that which has an independent existence without being indebted to any other existence’. According to them, whatever exists in the external world owes its existence to another entity, it is dependent, and therefore it is not real but an image. Idealism thus necessarily arrives at the concept of ‘god’, since all dependents must be the product of one independent universal. By trying to deny the sensuous, idealism is in reality trying to deny ‘matter’.
“There is no abstract truth, truth is always concrete”. Reality is concrete and objective, independent of consciousness. Regardless of consciousness, all beings are real. In this sense, the term real is also related to the terms ‘matter’ and ‘object’. “Matter is the objective reality given to us by the senses”. All objects are also real. When we say real, it is the object, quality, condition, situation, etc. that has emerged objectively outside our consciousness. We understand facts and events such as Truth is the reflection of this objective truth in our consciousness. Truth becomes true to the extent that it conforms to reality. A theory that is in accordance with the truth, that is, not in accordance with the truth in nature, has no value. In this sense, reality is also related to the concept of practice. We can find out whether a theory (theory) is true by trying it with practice, that is, with reality. What we need to do is not to try to fit the facts to our designs, but to make our designs fit the facts and thus to obtain the truth. Our sensations, perceptions, designs, and theories become true to the extent that they are in accordance with objective reality. So every truth is also objective. Our subjective opinions, ideas, dreams, artifacts and illusions that do not correspond to reality (Fr. real) are not truth. For example, ‘ghost’ is not truth, it is fabrication and illusion, because it has no reality that exists outside of our thinking.