What is Volontarism and What Does It Mean?July 2, 2021
Volontarism or Voluntarism is the general name of the teachings that argue that existence is a product of will. Volontarism or Volontarism begins with Stoicism in Ancient Greek philosophy. The Stoics, with a voluntaristic view, consider Plato’s ideas unrealistic.
According to the understanding of Volontarism or Voluntarism, nature is the universal will. That is why what is right and good is what is in accordance with his command. The voluntarism, which continued in Christianity, which carries many things from Stoicism, was re-emphasized in the 19th century with the teachings of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) and Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900). According to Nietzsche, the ‘superhuman’ will be created by human will. According to Schopenhauer, every phenomenon is the product of a will. I exist because I wanted to exist.
Big teeth are the product of the desire to tear, agile legs the desire to escape, the desire to see huge pupils in the dark, the long beaks are the product of the desire to feed on reptiles. In whatever direction this will, this desire was turned, creation was suitable for him. Existence is the will that happens. In this sense, voluntarism is an anti-mechanism doctrine. Just as mechanism counts natural law from the boat, so voluntarism counts human will from the boat. In other words, mechanism is pure necessity, voluntarism is pure freedom.
In mechanism, man acts with necessity, in voluntarism he acts with freedom. In mechanism, man is whatever he eats, as Vogt said, in volontarism, man is whatever he wishes, as Schopenhauer says, for example.
Dialectical materialism overcame the weakness of both ideas, showing that nature (necessity N.) and man (will, freedom N.) constitute each other through their mutual influence (relation). In reality, man is neither a slave nor a God, but a truly human being who consciously participates in natural necessity and consciously influences that necessity. Voluntarism is an idealist and unscientific understanding and carries the common mistakes of all idealist teachings. In practice, it has been the intellectual basis of fascism.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer Yıldırım