What Is Wisdom, What Does It Mean?July 1, 2021
The term wisdom has been used in various meanings throughout history. The first name of philosophy was wisdom.
Wisdom in ancient Greek philosophy was to act rationally. Socrates used this term to mean self-knowledge. According to the Stoics, wisdom is acting in accordance with nature. Ethics has coined the term to mean not to be caught up in passions. Since wisdom is the attribute of the wise, it also includes morality and exemplary humanity.
According to Epicurus, wisdom is a state of high unshakability (Ataraxia) achieved through virtue, it is pure serenity and indifference. Wisdom in the theological sense is a divine quality and is peculiar to God. Ancient Greek philosophy, which started philosophical thought with the sayings of the famous seven sages (Thales, the first Greek thinker), is a philosophy of wisdom, and according to the understanding of wisdom, wisdom realizes a virtuous ideal, is the highest good and happiness. Wisdom is a historical phenomenon and should not be confused with contemporary wisdom (Scholarship).
The mentality of societies is determined by the values that are inherent in the conception of the universe or that establish the conception of the universe. Since every thought and action is based on a value, values are the principles on which thoughts and actions are based. However, the values that carry the cultural system differ according to the fields of thought and action. Each of the fields such as nutrition, shelter, security, health, education, politics, religion, morality has its own values. While the regular structure formed by the values transforms into the concept of the universe, the wise person stands out as the authorized person about the concept of the universe and values. Wise is a leader who demonstrates the ability to associate the experiences in various fields with the results obtained from the judgments of the experiences, can see the values in a holistic structure, and can judge the actions and thoughts according to the values of the society.
In wisdom-based considerations, judgments are made by comparing value with the consequences of action. If a decision is made about an action, that action is judged in relation to the values inherent in morals, customs, religion and traditions, depending on the type of action. The main thing is to conclude by judging the action that takes place in the present with the values inherent in the past. Since the basic framework in wisdom is drawn by morality, morality has a dominant place in judgments about actions. Since what is morally right is confirmed by religion, customs and traditions, there is no conflict between them. The morals, religion, customs and traditions applied in the judgments are decisive in the end, depending on the type of action. Belief in the correctness of morals, religions, customs and traditions, which are used as reference systems in the evaluation of the action, also leads people to believe that the social order built on them is correct, reliable and unshakable.
Another way to judge in the wisdoms is to tell stories about the subject. Telling an event believed to have taken place in the past in the form of a story and taking lessons from it shows how to reach a conclusion about the subject discussed. In the story, it is especially shown that the person who acts in accordance with the value is rewarded, and the person who does not act appropriately is harmed. Since the stories in question are generally moral, religious and political, judgments are often based on a moral framework. Stories told in a plain language show what kind of values the society lives by. Because the stories are about legendary or historical figures, they display the deep-rooted connection between values and the past of the society, thus keeping the historical thought of the society alive.
The three basic institutions, morality, religion and politics (customs), which are decisive in the formation of the theoretical ground of wisdom and the control of its application area, also shape the structure of wisdom. At the center of the social order is morality that regulates interpersonal relations. The fundamental value of morality is honesty. Integrity as a value is living in accordance with moral principles. Integrity is directly related to the principle of “do no harm, do good”. For the continuity of the social order, it is essential that individuals do not harm each other and help each other. The more this principle is followed, the more the continuity of social existence is guaranteed. Every individual in society, including the ruler, has to abide by the principle of “do no harm, do good” on which righteousness is based. Since the principle in question is inherent in the conception of the universe, it has been adopted by everyone. Therefore, everyone directs each other to the right actions by controlling each other with this binding principle. In this way, it is expected that all kinds of harm that people try or cause to each other will be prevented.
In societies that explain the conception of the universe with religion, problems such as the universal order, how the order is established and managed, the creation of man, how he will live in the world and his life after death are among the subjects of religions. central value of religion