Who is Al-Ghazali (Ghazali)?June 25, 2021
Al-Ghazali (GazzaEbū Hāmid Muhammed bin Muhammed al-Ghazali (Arabic: أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي) (b. 1058 – d. 1111), Iranian Islamic scholar, mystic and professor. He is generally known by the names of Al-Ghazali and Imam Ghazali.
Ghazali was born in Tus city of Khorasan in 450 Hijri (Gregorian 1058). He completed his primary education in the city of Tus with Ahmed b. Muhammed er-Razikani, then went to the city of Cürcan and was educated by Abu Nasr al-Ismaili, then studied science in Nishapur Nizamiye Madrasa until he was 28 years old. Shafi was impressed.
When his teacher Imam-i Haramayn Abdulmalik al-Juveyni died in 1085, he went to Nizamülmülk, the vizier of the Great Seljuk State, from Nishapur. After proving his superiority over other scholars with the answers he gave at a meeting in the presence of Nizamülmülk, he was appointed as the Chief Mudarris of the Nizamiye Madrasah in Baghdad in 1091. Here, he gained fame and prestige in a short time with his extensive knowledge and the large student community he raised.
For a time, he fell into a mental depression that could not teach. This depression was influential in al-Ghazali’s inclination towards Sufism. With the influence of Abu Ali Farmi, who was his teacher in the field of Sufism, he gave more importance to this field. Due to his interest in Sufism and his desire to go to Hajj, he left the madrasah in 1095 and went to Damascus. After staying in Damascus for two years, he went to Hajj in 1097. While there are those who attribute this behavior to the fact that he cannot fully fulfill the religious requirements, there are also those who claim that his sadness was the cause of the murder of Nizamül Mulk. After the pilgrimage, he returned to Damascus and passed through Baghdad to Tus. During his stay in Damascus and Tus, he lived a life of reflection and isolation and reached a very advanced stage in the field of Sufism. Eleven years after his departure from Baghdad, in 1106, he started to give education again in Nizamiye Madrasa upon the request of Nizamül Mulk’s son, Fahrül Mulk. He returned to Tus after a short time and lived a Sufi life with his followers in the Tekke, which he had built here. Ghazali died in 1111 (Hijri 505) in the city of Tus, his birthplace.
Ghazali’s life and works
Ghazali was born in 1058 in Tus, in the Khorasan region of Iran. Although he is known by nicknames such as Hüccetülislâm and Zeynüddin, his famous nisbe Gazzâlî (Gazâlî) was named Abu Hamid and was known as Abuhamet and Algazel by the Medieval Western scholastics. Ghazali, who started his education in Tus, went to Cürcân for five years and continued there for five years. Afterwards, he went to Nişabur and entered the Nizamiye Madrasa, where he became the student of al-Jüveynî, the most well-known theologian of the period. He benefited from well-educated scholars and thinkers during the six years he spent in the headquarters of Nizamülmülk, where he went after Cüveynî’s death, and also had the opportunity to increase his success and reputation through scientific discussions and discussions.
Gazzâlî, who was appointed as the teacher of the Baghdad Nizamiye Madrasah by Nizamülmülk, was dragged into a mental-spiritual depression as a result of his critical studies on theology, Bâtinîism, philosophy and mysticism. Ghazali, who decided that his means and the situation he was in threatened his inner world and spiritual life, left Baghdad to go to fiam. Later, he went to Hejaz via Jerusalem, fulfilled the pilgrimage obligation, and returned to Nishapur and his family, for which he was longing in 1106, 11 years later. Ghazali, who spent the last years of his life giving lectures and writing works, died in Tus on 18 December 1111. Some of his surviving works are as follows: Mi’yârü’l-ilm, Mihakkü’n-nazar fî ilmi’l-logic, Fedâ’ihü’l- Bâtıniyye (Inner Face of Bâtinîness), el-İktisâd fi’l-İ’tikad ( The Middle Way in Faith), al-Maksadü’l-esnâ, İlcamü’l- avâm an ilmi’l-kelâm, Makâsıdü’l-felâsife (Aims of the philosophers), Tehâfütü’l-falâsife (The Inconsistency of the Philosophers), Mişkâtü’l- envâr (Lighthouse of Lights), el-Münkızü mine’d-dalâl (Liberation from Misguidance), Mîzânü’l-amel, İhyâ’ü ulûmi’d-dîn, Bidâyetü’l-hidaye, Kimya-yı Sa’âdet.
Ghazali’s method and understanding of knowledge
First of all, al-Ghazali is a seeker of truth, and his relationship with philosophy is closely related to this quality of him. According to al-Münkız, Ghazali’s questioning of the true nature of things and his desire to reach definitive information on this matter is the starting point of his methodical skepticism. The innate “passion for grasping the truths of beings” turns into an effort to “get rid of imitation and investigate” even in his early youth. This search, which lasted for about two months in the epistemological crisis, resulted in the shaping of his understanding of knowledge and method. As a result of the search he carried out in the light of the principles he determined, Ghazali came to the conclusion that certain knowledge should be free from any possibility of doubt and error, and he realizes that there is information with this quality in his mind and that he is sure that these are not beyond doubt. math b