Who is Albert Abraham Michelson?December 13, 2020
American physicist born in Strelno on December 19, 1852 and died on May 9, 1931.
Two years after her birth, her family moved to Virginia City. But then they went to San Francisco. Michelson finished high school here in 1869. By President Grant U.S. He was invited to Naval Academy (Maritime College). After graduating as a lieutenant, he sailed for two years. He later taught physics and chemistry at the academy alongside Admiral Sampson.
He worked in the Maritime almanac office in 1879. He went to Europe, visiting the University of Berlin, Heidelberg, and the College de France and École Polytechnique in Paris. He resigned from the navy in 1883. He became professor of practice school physics in Cleveland, Ohio. In 1890 he accepted the same position at Clark University ‘Worcester, Massachusetts. And in 1892 he became professor of physics and head of department at the newly established University of Chicago. He rejoined the Navy during World War I. He returned to Chicago in 1918. Michelson resigned in 1929 to work for the Mount Wilson Observatory.
Throughout his career he has dealt with various branches of physics. Apparently he had a special talent, he achieved success in optics. He first measured the speed of light in 1881 with incredible precision. He discovered the interferometer, which measures the effect of the earth’s motion on the measurement of the speed of light. Using the interferometer with Professor E. W. Morley, he showed that light travels at the same speed in all internal systems. The interferometer was also used to measure the desired distance with great precision in terms of wavelengths.
He measured the standard meter in terms of the wavelength of Cadmium light at the request of the international committee of weights and measures. He found his Echelon spectroscope and developed tools for it through his work in the navy during the war. BASE. Rangefinder, which is among the naval equipment, is one of them. When he returned to civil life, he was more interested in astronomy.
In 1920, he measured the diameter of the Betelgeuse star using light interference and an improved form of the interferometer. This measurement is also the first time to accurately determine the size of a star. Michelson’s articles have been published in many scientific journals. Some of these are Velocity of Light (1902) Light Waves and their Uses (1899-1903), and Studies in Optics (1927).
Michelson has been a member of many influential societies in America and ten European countries. He was president of the American Physical Society (1900), the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1910-1911), and the National Academy of Sciences (1923-1927). He was also a member of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Royal Society of London, and the Optical Society, an Associate of l’Académie Française. Among the many awards they have received are Matteucci Medal (Societá Italiana), 1904; Copley Medal (Royal Society), 1907; Elliot Cresson Medal (Franklin Institute), 1912; Draper Medal (National Academy of Sciences), 1916; Franklin Medal (Franklin Institute), Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1923; and Duddell Medal (Physical Society), 1929.
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 3rd Year “History of Contemporary Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM)