Who Is Albert Einstein?December 13, 2020
He is a German physicist of Jewish origin.
Described as the most important theoretical physicist of the 20th century, Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity and made important contributions to quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and cosmology. He was awarded the 1921 “Nobel Prize in Physics” for his contributions to theoretical physics and his explanation for the photoelectric effect . (In line with the principles of the Nobel Prize and the Nobel Committee at the time, the “Theory of Relativity” , considered today as Einstein’s most important contribution, was found too theoretical and was not explicitly mentioned in the award.)
Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany in 1879. His father owns an electrical factory called Einstein & Cie; her mother was an educated housewife who was fond of classical music. Although his family started to speak late and was an introverted child, it was understood that he was a healthy child in the following years.
In 1880 he moved to Munich with his family. His father Hermann and his brother Yakob formed an electrical engineering company here called Einstein cie. In 1894, due to the family’s bankruptcy, they moved to Italy.
He completed his high school education in Switzerland in 1894 and entered the Zurich Polytechnic Institute (ETH) in 1896. He married a physics student named Mileva Maric of Serbian origin. Mileva helped with the mathematical calculations of Einstein’s research in 1905. He went to New York in 1921 to work on his theory.
In 1933 the National Socialist Party in Germany on behalf of the 40 scientists are not allowed to work with that ruling, Prime Minister Ismet Inonu, he wrote a letter asking them to continue their studies in Turkey. İsmet İnönü kindly refused this request.
During this period, Einstein was offered the Presidency of Israel, but he refused. Dr. Founded the Jewish University of Jerusalem with Chaim Weizmann.
He made many contributions to the world of science until his death in 1955. His “Theory of General Relativity” , published in 1916, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921 for his work in the field of “photoelectric effect and theoretical physics”.
He worked in the federal patent office in Bern. He did a lot of research on the problems that had begun to be raised in contemporary physics in the remainder of this assignment. He first dealt with the structure of the atom and Max Planck’s quantum theory. He established his theory by applying the probability calculus to Brownian motion and tested his theory by calculating the value of the Avogadro’s number. He was one of the first physicists to understand the importance of quantum theory and applied it to radiant energy. This allowed him to construct the light particles or photons hypothesis and explain the photoelectric phenomenon.
In 1905, in addition to two articles describing these studies, a third article appeared in the journal “Annalen der Physik” and in this article he laid the foundation of the theory of relativity. His theories sparked fierce controversy. He became a lecturer at the University of Zurich in 1909. After a year in Prague, he became a professor at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. In 1913 he taught at the Berlin Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute and was elected a member of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. As a scientist he remained neutral during World War I. In 1914, his wife left the scientist who had two sons named Hans and Eduard, from his first wife. The scientist, who suffered from stomach aches during the food shortage due to World War I, was cared for by his cousin Elsa and married for the second time with Elsa (alias Else).
He lived in Berlin until 1933, although he made many trips to foreign countries. Due to the racist attitude of the National Socialist (Nazi) regime that came to power in Germany, he left Germany like many scientists of Jewish origin. He taught at the College de France in Paris; It passed from here to Belgium and then to England. Finally, he went to the United States and became a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study, which operates on the Princeton University campus. He became an American citizen in 1940.
His younger son Eduard spent his life in a nursing home near Zurich with a mental illness; His elder son Albert studied engineering at the Zurich Polytechnic, where his father and mother met, and later became a professor at the University of California, Berkley. Died at Princeton in 1955; was found with his son Albert.
Her stepdaughter, Margot Einstein, carefully kept the scientist’s personal letters from everyone and bequeathed her to remain hidden for another 20 years after her death. These letters, published today by Princeton University, provide interesting information about the scientist’s secret private life.
What is Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity?