Who is Anaximandros (Anaximandros)?November 30, 2020
The second of the first philosophers is Anaximandros. He is from Miletus like Thales. But it is from the generation after Thales. He became his student and then his successor (successor). It is said that he found the sundial and drew the first map.
Anaximandros, like Thales, focused on the arkhe problem. He also questioned what is the origin of the existing ones, what is the main substance. According to him, the raw material should be eternal and inexhaustible. It was Anaximandros who first explicitly determined the concept of infinite and attributed it to matter. However, Anaximandros not only ascribed the quality of eternity to the main matter, but went further, “Principle is not only infinite, it is also infinite; because no other determination closer to it can be imposed. “ he said.
Thales identified the first substance with water, so a certain known substance. According to Anaximandros, we cannot do this, because every certain thing is finite and limited, that is, it is limited by its opposite: hot cold, liquid with solid, bright dark, etc. is limited. Everything that is certain, therefore finite and finite, is something that has happened — composed of hot cold, liquid solid — and turns back to its opposite. Thus, one of the opposite things sometimes outweighs the other; and this continues until they are purified again in the eternal mother matter from which they emerge.
Anaximandros from the Apeiron understanding has developed a very unique view of nature: Before Apeiron, hot and cold occurred. The hot enveloped what was initially cold and dark (the place that was forming) like a shell as a sphere of flame. Two opposites were born from Cold: solid and liquid. From the liquid, because of the heat of the flame sphere surrounding the ground, the mists rose and split the sphere of flame into rings, wheels of air filled with fire. These wheels also scatter flames from some holes – the sun, the moon. Thus, the sky came into being from the combination of air (mist) and fire. The floor is not in the form of a tray, it is in the form of a cylinder, a round column and lies freely in the cavity; the sky also revolves around the earth.
From these explanations of Anaximandros, we clearly see that: There is an attempt to link the various and complex events that we naturally encounter on a single, simple basis. This is what makes Anaximandros a complete thinker; This simplifying attempt to explain is that he wants to connect the real multiplicity to a unity in thought.
We know very little about Anaximandros, the second philosopher of the Ionian School and a student and friend of Thales. The most important information about his life is that he started the written tradition in rational thought and activity. According to this, unlike Thales, who did not write anything and left nothing written, Anaximandros (610-546 BC) wrote down his thoughts or philosophical speculations about existence and the essay called Peri Phusis [On Nature], which we will come across in all natural philosophers. gave the first example that has not reached our day naturally.
In Anaximandros, scientific activity and philosophical thought are intertwined. Therefore, we encounter a considerable amount of scientific activity in him, independent of his philosophical views. Anaximandros, who made a map for sailors who sailed to the Black Sea and painted a picture of the inhabited world on a plate for the first time in history, is the person who finds the sundial as a device that determines the time by looking at the locations and lengths of the shadows created by a vertical rod placed on a flat base at various times of the day. . He concluded in his cosmology that the earth was not in the form of a tray, as was thought, but a cylinder whose width was three times its height. In biology, he says that life began in seas and water, that all living things, including human beings, first lived in the seas,He developed a theory of evolution that revealed that they later came onto land.
Thales of Anaximandros, not only in the field of science, but also in arkhe or material substance or aition also exceeded the issue. Accordingly, he opposed Thales’ understanding of “water” as the material substance on the ground that water is limited in quantity and specific in quality. Since water or moisture is one of the opposites whose conflicts and wars we have to explain, it never comes out against it. In other words, since change, birth and death, growth and downsizing, conflict and war are the result of one element expanding its boundaries to the detriment of another, it is satisfactory to the question of how or not to dissolve in water. no explanation can be given. So only things that are wet and cold can come from water. However, there are also hot and dry things in the world.
Even if we get rid of the difficulty of water being specific in terms of quality, according to Anaximandros, this time we encounter the difficulty caused by the limited quantity of water. In other words, the infinite mass of beings that make up the universe cannot arise from a finite mass of matter, such as water. According to the philosopher who claimed that there are infinitely many universes, such a view of the universe requires an infinite amount of matter. Because it is not satisfactory and correct to bring all the qualities existing in the universe to a single quality, to reduce all opposites to a single opposite, according to him, the first substance or material substance of the universe must be a substance that is uncertain in quality and unlimited in quantity. Anaximandros is an indeterminate entity that is not identical to any sensory substance, its first substance with the mentioned characteristicsHe gave the name apeiron in the sense of an abstract principle.
In ancient Greek philosophy “What is the essential essence of existence?” The answers to the question, “What is the source of the universe?”, “How did this multiplicity in the universe come about from this source?” It is also intertwined with questions. Thales’ answer to the first of these questions was based on one side of religious attitudes and on the other, on his personal observations about the world he lives in. The fact that he emphasized the great importance of water for living beings was the result of these observations. In addition to emphasizing the great importance of water for living beings, Thales did not clearly state how the existences came from water.
The second attempt to explain the origin of what exists in the world of Greek philosophy and how those existing from this source came into being is Anaximandros, who lived between 611 and 546 BC as a friend and student of Thales. As far as we understand from the information about him, Anaximandros is a person who stands out with his identity as a politician, astronomer, cartographer and mathematician. Anaksimandros, one of the founders of Apollonia, one of the Black Sea colonies of the ancient Greeks, is the person who created one of the first celestial maps in the Greek world, as well as a map centered on the Mediterranean. Again, there are four important theoretical and practical discoveries in astronomy, one of the firsts in the Ancient Greek world and of great importance for that day.The first of these is to explore the ecliptic curvature of the world and explain how the sun changes its rising and setting positions according to the seasons, while the second is to introduce the gnomon (sundial) to practical use. The third is an alternative to the explanation developed by Thales to explain the sunrise and sunset, based on the understanding that the earth is in the form of a tray that floats on water. Thales’s explanation was that the reason why the Sun was not visible in the time between sunrise and sunset was that it was behind the mountains and that people passed east again without seeing the sun. According to Anaximandros, the world is not a flat tray, but a column whose width is three times its height. As the sun sets, the sun disappears behind this pillar,It arises from the other side of the column during its birth. The fourth important thought that Anaximandros developed regarding astronomy is that the world, which he stated as a column, stands motionless in the center of the universe and in space without any support.
Anaximandros envisions standing still in the vacuum as a result of the equalization of all forces affecting the world. According to Anaximandros, he tried to explain the structure and formation of the stars and other celestial bodies around the world, as well as the earth standing motionless in the center of the universe. According to Anaximandros, stars are made of light leaking through the cracks of a system of circles covered with a shell and containing fire. Various states of the Moon emerge as the cracks in these circles grow and shrink. Apart from these new ideas that he brought to the Greek world in the field of astronomy, another unique aspect of Anaximandros is that he came up with the idea of ’infinite worlds’.He also mentions from Apeiron, who also has a divinity, that there is an infinite multitude of universes, including the world we live in, whether they exist simultaneously or sequentially (Kranz, 1948: 38-40). In addition to these groundbreaking views based on astronomy, Anaximandros proposed an understanding that could be described as the first evolutionist approach regarding the emergence and development of living things and humans. According to this understanding, the life that started in humidity resulted in the emergence of more and more complex organisms, and with an evolution from water to land, man emerged (Kranz, 1948: 40).In addition to these groundbreaking views based on astronomy, Anaximandros proposed an understanding that could be qualified as the first evolutionist approach regarding the emergence and development of living things and human beings. According to this understanding, the life that started in humidity resulted in the emergence of more and more complex organisms, and man emerged with an evolution from water to land (Kranz, 1948: 40).In addition to these groundbreaking views based on astronomy, Anaximandros proposed an understanding that could be qualified as the first evolutionist approach regarding the emergence and development of living things and human beings. According to this understanding, the life that started in humidity resulted in the emergence of more and more complex organisms, and man emerged with an evolution from water to land (Kranz, 1948: 40).