Who is Anselmus? (St. Anselmus)
Anselmus was a Christian philosopher who lived between 1033-1109 and was known for his ontological proof of the existence of God.
Anselmus was born in Aosta in northern Italy in 1033 as a child of the Roman noble family. He was educated by the priests of the Benedictine sect in Aosta, where he remained until he was 23 years old. For nearly three years he visited various places in Europe and entered Bec Monastery in 1059. His tutor at Bec, Lanfranc, was Archbishop of Canterbury at the time, and while he died in 1089, Anselmus was appointed in 1093.
He took Augustine’s view of orum I believe to understand, and tried to ground belief in reason. He came across as a philosopher who adopted the attitude of orum I believe to understand de rather than orum I try to understand, to believe, ve and gave priority to faith or faith in the face of reason and authority in the face of knowledge when it came to the relationship between belief and reason. This effort of Anselmus is an indication of scholastism’s attempt to combine reason and belief.
Anselmus is of the opinion that judgments should be absolute. For example, if there is good, it must be absolute good. If there is an asset, it must be an absolute asset. According to him, the existence of God will be proved through this thought. Another proof of God by Anselmus is that God is the most competent being. If we consider that God does not exist, then God is incomplete. However, God’s definition is that he is the most competent being. So there is God.
Anselmus acknowledges that Augustine’s first sin persisted for generations. According to him, God entered the human form (Jesus) to save people from this first sin and was crucified to save all people from the first sin. In this first period of scholastism, religion and philosophy were tried to be reconciled. Religious concepts were tried to be explained with reason and Plato’s concept realism was used for this purpose.
Anselmus has more than one proof of God. Some historians of philosophy think that three of them are noteworthy. Accordingly, our minds and senses convey information that there are many good things around us. The basic question at this point is: Are all these good things good for one good thing; or does the good in each one have its own characteristic? Of course, the answer given by Anselmus is clear: All good things are good for one good.
Another proof of God by Anselmus is also evolving to remind us of other proofs. According to him, everything takes its existence from an entity that realizes its existence through itself. Existence involves a certain level of excellence. Every who is more or less perfect receives this perfection from the one who has the highest degree of perfection, and that is God. Anselmus finally puts forward the basic premise of the famous ontological proof of God, saying, tay We believe that you are something that cannot be considered greater than that.
According to Anselmus, justice is about the proper use of will. If the will shows a proper tendency, then an action that finds truth has emerged. The freedom of will is closely related to truth or honesty, which means virtuous behavior. This freedom, according to Anselmus, is a state of wanting righteousness only for itself. According to Anselmus, will has three meanings. Will means, above all, the power or ability to ask. Second, the will can be understood as the tendency or influence of the power of will. The third meaning of will is the act of wanting. The emergence of these actions is a process of knowledge. Because demanding anything requires an action that is appropriate to the functioning of the mind. Therefore, there is a visible parallel between choice and will and reason. Will, then it is the power to morally choose the truth. The most fundamental element on which this power is based is God Himself. Therefore, Anselmus’ understanding of morality is largely divine.
Anselmus, who made significant gains in the name of the church in the fight between the Kingdom and the Church, died on 21 April 1109. Among his writings are the De Grammatico, the Monologion, the Proslogion of the Spirit, the De Veritate, the De Libertate Arbitrii.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Grade Giriş Introduction to Philosophy ”and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade Tarihi History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook
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