Who is Arnold Geulincx?December 13, 2020
Arnold Geulincx (pronounced: Arnout) is the famous French Descartesian thinker who founded Occationalism with Malebranche.
Descartes’ division of a whole sphere of existence into two as matter and soul, body and mind with precise lines, extracted from man, who is a single, unified substance, two substances that have nothing in common, and the logically impossible relationship between the two substances is a bit artificial. There were two alternatives for the Descartesian philosophers, after he explained it in some way with interactionism:
– Accepting the phenomenon of interaction and then reconsidering the theories, the cone-shaped gland, which left Descartesist with difficulty in explaining how this interaction occurred,
– While adopting Descartes’ dualist point of view, denying interaction. Choosing the second alternative, Geulinecx, in this context, pioneered the thesis that, in any activity or real causality, the force or subject that initiates the action, the force or subject that causes the action, must know what action is and how it acts.
Geulincx, a philosopher who set out from Descartes’ system, developed his doctrine in a more mystical direction.
Like Descartes, he takes the existence of his thought as a starting point. Consciousness has two states, the first is to want, to hear. our own creations such as judgment, the second are those formed as a result of our perceptions. We do not create these latter, they are outside of us. We cannot know the reason for things that we did not create. We cannot know how our own motions and the motions of bodies come about, the reason for these motions, or by whom. Here comes the following conclusion; we are just a spectator, all life develops outside of us, our body is not the cause of perception in our soul, and a will in our soul is not a direct cause of a movement in our body. These are just occasions and not the real cause.
The main reason is God. God creates a thinking in our soul with an excitation in the body and provides a movement in my body through a will.
The relationship between spirit and matter emerged as a problem in Descartes. How the spirit could affect matter seemed incomprehensible. Thus Geulincx explained the relationship between spirit and matter through the influence of God. The only reason is God who acts only. Everything else is passive and they experience God’s will as an occasion. This result shows itself in terms of morality. According to Geulincx, he should not want anything from the material world, where there is no connection between the soul. Since man is just a bystander, he has to obey God’s every wish, and even he has no right to ask for anything on himself.
Thus, Descartes’s indifferent system towards religion is softened and brought closer to mysticism. In addition, Geulincx introduced the view known as Occasionalism.
Dutch philosopher. It is because they did not develop the opinion called searched.
He was born on January 31, 1624 in Antwerp, and died in November 1669 in Leiden. He received a Descartean education at Louvain University. He became professor of philosophy at the same institution in 1646. He went to Leiden in 1658, left Catholicism and became a Calvinist. Under difficult circumstances, he received his medical doctor award that same year. During a few years without a regular post, he published several of his works. He was appointed professor of philosophy at Leiden University in 1665 and continued in this post until his death.
Geulincx’s philosophy is significantly inspired by Descartes. Like Descartes, he starts out from doubt and reaches the knowledge of “I” as a thinking being. This knowledge is also fundamental to him. Unlike Descartes, Geulincx also dealt with moral issues and developed a unique view in this area. Although Descartes adopted the starting points, he reached different conclusions regarding substance.
In Ethica (“Morality”) virtue is made the main subject of morality. Virtue is identified with love. This love is in an actual rather than emotional sense and is directed towards the reason. According to him, obeying the laws given by God is a requirement of a virtuous and moral life. Virtue is in fact one and simple. However, it also has different aspects. In determining these fundamental aspects, Geulincx differs from traditional Platonic and Stoic thought. Conforming to tradition while enumerating justice as one of the fundamental virtues, the Geulincx, for example, replaces caution with submission and inferiority (contemptio sui). Effort and diligence is to follow reason and, in a sense, to be cautious in action. Submission again means obeying the laws of reason. He advocates submission not to the will of God, but to the rationality he has made and which he himself obeys. To see the essence down is the top of the aspects of virtue. This is first of all knowing oneself. As a result, the love of man returns to reason and God in complete unity.
His Works (mainly): Saturnalia, 1653, (“Saturn Ceremonies”); Logica, 1662, (“Logic”); Ethica, 1664, (“Morality”); Entretiens sur la metaphysique et sur la religion, (d.), 1688, (“Reflection on Metaphysics and Religion