Who is Arnold Joseph Toynbee?December 13, 2020
Arnold Joseph Toynbee is an English historian who lived from April 14, 1889 to October 22, 1975.
He is a history philosopher who says that the subject of history is cultures, and that cultures are dynamic structures and take their characteristics from creative people, so history should try to understand cultures instead of making positive or negative evaluations about cultures.
He was born on April 14, 1889 in London. Winchester was educated at Balliol College and later Oxford, where he would become a faculty member. When the First World War broke out, like many of his country’s writers, he was employed in the propaganda bureau of the war ministry. Meanwhile, he signed many propaganda works. These include Turkey, located at that time at war with the British Empire, there were also concerns books.
He later took office as the founding professor of the Koraís chair on Byzantine and Modern Greek Language, Literature and History at the University of London. In 1921, taking permission from his current position, he followed the Turkish-Greek war in Anatolia on behalf of the “Manchester Guardian” on the spot and told the readers of this newspaper about the brutal acts committed by the Greek troops. In return, he penned a piece called Western Question in Greece and Turkey. This book was published in the summer of 1922, just before the National Turkish Army under Mustafa Kemal defeated the Greek forces. Toynbee’s writings and his growing sympathy for the Turks’ cause drew the reaction of the Greek government and supporters who contributed to the financing of the Koraís chair. Tired of repression and accusations, Toynbee left the chair in 1924. Later,He worked at the Royal Institute of International Relations until his retirement in 1955, where he wrote important works.
He died on October 22, 1975.
Characteristics of his Works
Toynbee states that the historian deals with the lives of some basic parts of the human species, selects and examines these entities called society, and argues that the history researcher examines the relations between societies under certain concepts and categories.
He is one of the leading historians, especially on the Greek and Eastern Civilizations, and his works are heavily influenced by high-quality interpretations by a qualified scholar. The broadness of his horizons and the power of expression are also seen in his most important work, A Study of History, which is a twelve-volume work, in which he divides the history of the world into 26 civilizations and analyzes its rise and fall according to the periods of “facing and responding to dangers”.