Who is Auguste Comte?November 30, 2020
Its full name Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte , if briefly Auguste Comte February 17, 1798 to 5 great French sociologist who lived between September 1857 mathematician and philosopher. Comte is also known as the founding father of the field of science called sociology .
Comte was born in the important French city of Montpellier, which is today known for its university. Montpellier; It was an important cultural city known for hosting prominent visitors such as Petrarca , Rabelais, and John Locke . Some details of his life history can help us understand his thoughts.
His father and mother, who were tax collectors, were royalist and strict Catholic. They were opposed to Republicanism and skeptical views that spread in France at the time. Little Comte took his side in this conflicted environment: he opposed the Catholic Church and royalism. He was physically unhealthy. His frail body, myopia, and stomach disease have been a problem throughout his life. After taking Latin lessons from an elderly teacher hired by her parents, she started secondary school at the age of 9. His boarding life found it difficult. However, as his mental development was ahead of his age, he did very well in his lessons.
He left the Catholic Church at the age of 14. At the age of 15, he took the Paris Polytechnic School exam. Although he was very successful, he was not accepted to the school due to his young age. He dominated the subject enough to give lectures in place of the math teacher who fell ill in the last year of high school. He entered the Paris Polytechnic School in October 1814. The strict time-bound discipline of the school was not according to Comte, the indomitable attitude. Stayed here for 2 years.
When Napoleon fled to the island of Elbe, although he hated him, he joined the students who went to war to save Paris from foreign occupation. He was sent to Montpollier under police surveillance because of his escape from school at night, wandering around the streets of Paris, and some of his behavior towards the school administration. His school was closed by the administration due to its Republican tendencies.
Comte could not stay away from Paris, which is almost the mirror of society. He returned to Paris at the age of 18. In this new period, he especially read books on Philosophy and History. 18th century. He was influenced by the views of French thinkers, Montesquieu, Condorcet, Turgot. Hume and Kant were also among the thinkers he was influenced by. He created his own unique synthesis by making use of the social conditions he lived in and the views of the aforementioned thinkers. Among the people he met was Saint-Simon, one of the founders of socialism, with whom he later fell apart. In addition to social issues, he continued his studies in mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry and biology.
In 1821, he married a lady of poor reputation. He was not well received by his old friends in his birthplace. His attempt to return to Paris to teach a private group was interrupted by mental health problems. In early 1827 he attempted suicide by jumping into the “You” river. He recovered fully in the summer of 1827. In 1829, he resumed the lecture series that was left unfinished. This time it was successful. He published these conferences in 6 volumes with the title “Factual Philosophy Lessons”.
He gave lectures to the workers every year between 1830-48. (Basic astronomy course) He started to teach mathematics at the Polytechnic School. However, he was suspended from school for teasing an official in Philosophy Lessons 6 volume. In 1838, his book was reviewed in The Edinburgh Review. On the effort of John Stuart Mill, he received financial aid from three Britons. The relationship that started with the sister of one of his students in 1844- (45) and remained at a platonic level brought happiness and painful days for Comte. He left behind the painful period after his beloved girl died of tuberculosis in 1846 and started to work with a new force. His eight-year work, “The Factual Political System” (1851-54), included a description of sociology. His articles began to attract a wide audience. He corresponded with positive groups around the world.
In May 1857, unable to recover from a cold caught at the funeral of an old friend, he died in September. The following was written on the tombstone as his will: “Love as principle, order as basis, progress as goal.”
AUGUSTE COMTE BY SOCIOLOGY
Since he was born right after the French Revolution, his work in the field of Sociology is a reaction to the French Revolution and Enlightenment Thought. It divides sociology into two as Social Statics and Social Dynamics. Social Statics; It focuses on the social structure with relatively stable relationships in each society. Social Dynamics, on the other hand, refers to the transition of humanity from one stage to another, that is, the change in society. Comte is an evolutionist. It sees history as a process of progress, that is, it is optimistic. According to Comte’s three laws of state, the theory of evolution, societies go through three stages:
- Theological stage
- Metaphysical stage
- Positivist stage