Who is Baruch Spinoza?December 14, 2020
Spinoza was born into a family engaged in business in the Netherlands. His family was Jewish and they fled from Portugal due to the pressures of the Inquisition, first to Nantes and then to Amsterdam (estimated as 1622).
He lived in the Netherlands at a time of intense scientific discoveries, religious divisions and conflicts, political changes, and philosophical developments. Spinoza’s father had made progress in the social sphere as well as business and became the director of the Synagogue and Jewish school in Amsterdam. His family wanted Spinoza to grow up as a Jewish rabbi and provided all kinds of educational opportunities for him to develop in this direction. For this reason, Spinoza learned Hebrew in Jewish schools and synagogues, where he attended at an early age, and had the opportunity to learn the work of Jewish and Arab theologians.
It can be said that Spinoza’s strong connection with secular and questioning thought was the influence of Manasseh ben Israel (appointed to Yeshiva in Amsterdam in 1638), whose teacher was known as the liberal rabbi, who was at the beginning of the educational process.
– Brief Study on God, Man, and the Happiness of Man
– Political Reviews, (Tractatus Politicus)
– The Development of Cognitive Power
– First and Second of the Principles of Descartes Philosophy. Definition of Parts by Geometric Method by Benedictus Spinoza.
– Theological-Political Studies
Spinoza’s work published in his lifetime is Descartes’ work in which he interprets his Principia Philosophiae and his book titled Theological-Political Studies. It was an ethical but unpublished book, published long after his death. Other books were compiled by his audience from his notes and incomplete writings.
Spinoza’s chronology of life
Spinoza’s understanding of metaphysics
Spinoza and 17th century philosophy
Spinoza’s understanding of method and knowledge
Spinoza’s political theory
Spinoza’s understanding of God and freedom
Spinoza’s understanding of God
Spinoza’s understanding of human and freedom
Substance, Quality and Appearance at Baruch Spinoza
Mind-body parallelism in Spinoza
Spinoza’s understanding of ethics, moral philosophy
Spinoza’s Understanding of Nature
Full Ideas (Adaequata Ideas) and Inadaequata Ideas
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Department of Sociology 1st Class “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2., 3., 4. Class “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook