Who is Benedetto Croce?December 14, 2020
Benedetto Croce, one of the most important Italian philosophers of the first half of the 20th century, who lived between 1866-1952, is one of the most important thinkers in the history of aesthetics.
According to Croce, who developed a spiritual philosophy modeled on the rationalism of classical romantic philosophy and argued that the spirit is the only truth, the skin realizes itself dialectically, in two steps as thought and action. Among them, the thought and action steps are also divided into two. Accordingly, the first step is intuition, intuitive knowledge or art, the second is logical knowledge or logic.
Croce; He accepts the central thesis of idealism that the spirit is the fundamental reality, as manifested in his thought and experience. The hallmark of his idealism is that it characterizes thought and experience. The experience that he equates with reality is not transcendent or absolute experience, but human experience. Beyond that, experience is temporal and limited to living experience in the present, the past is real only in the sense that it refers to present conditions, and the future is real insofar as it explains the present situation. The two basic forms or aspects of the present experience are:
1. Its theoretical view includes all the known with the intuitive or conceptual activity of the mind,
2. Its practical appearance encompasses the willingness and activities of understanding as a result of the application of will.
Theoretical activity reveals the mind with both material and form of knowledge. Intuition is the mind formation that creates the essence of our full experience, aesthetics is the branch of theoretical philosophy related to intuition. Conceptual thinking is the stage of the theoretical activity of the mind that realizes the structure and organization of the experience. Logic, which Croce defines as pure concept science, is related to the conceptual aspect of theoretical philosophy. Aesthetics is related to the general science of intuition, both the theory of perception and the theory of beauty. Croce’s use of these two meaningful terms “aesthetics” is the combination of the original epistemological meaning of the concept of “aesthetics” found in the first part of Kant’s Critique of the Bee Reason with the term “aesthetics” which he used to characterize Baumgarten’s philosophical theory. creates.
The second use of this term has a doctrinal meaning for Croce’s philosophy, he suggests that the intuition in perception of sensation (Kant’s “aesthetics”) is essentially the same as the aesthetic intuition (Baumgarten’s “aesthetics”). A theory of perception, if appropriate, also takes into account the activity of the creative artist or poet as normal perception has an aesthetic quality, and aesthetic creation and evaluation is the refinement of perceptual experience. Perception of sensation is not a formation in which the mind is passively aware of the external object, it is a concept formation in which thought knowledge is created by intuition. The difference between perception and artistic creation is not one of genre, but of degree. Both of them are the manifestation of the same expressive functions of the mind. The aesthetic intuition of sense perception requires emphasis in the medium of images, and this is the primary function of the creative artist. It transforms the images that express the artist’s perceptual intuition, not separate from the original intuition, but rather back into this intuition. Art, in this respect, frees the mind from the reflective levels of thought.
Logic is related to the level of conceptual and reflective thought that regulates and classifies the intuitive item. Croce defines logic as the unit of the concept of bee, and the concept of bee as a theory of philosophical categories in the idealistic tradition of Kant and Hegel. The bee concepts of ordinary logic by Croce include quality, evolution, form and beauty. Croce confronts the concepts of common sense and science with the bee concepts of philosophy. The concept of bee has the characteristics of 1) universality, 2) impressiveness and 3) concreteness.
Every category is immanent in every experience. But the pure concept is also transcendent. It has been consumed by the sum of empirical instances. The concept is the expression of the logical activity of the mind. It is the expression of perception or the image, of its aesthetic activity. The concept is a phenomenon that constitutes concrete experience, to put it in Hegel’s expression, it is not an abstract universal, it is concrete. creates. The contrast between the concrete and the abstract is revealed in Croce’s critique of the sciences; Since abstract concepts are utilized, the results of science have only relative validity. Although some sciences work on such abstractions of experiences such as matter, electron triangle, they are real constituents of the world of experience. Truth can only be reached with the bee concepts of philosophy.
The practical activity of the mind can be analyzed in two distinguishable but indissociable stages, willingness and action. Will and action are identical: no action takes place without the expression of will. There is no will to speak without a real act. Mechanical action only.