Who is Charles Montesquieu?June 25, 2021
Charles MontesCharles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), better known as Montesquieu, was a French political thinker.
He introduced the principle of separation of powers. In his book De l’esprit des lois, which he worked on for 20 years, he emphasized the importance of separating the legislature, the executive and the judiciary.
Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu. French philosopher who lived from 1689 to 1755. Developing a sociology of politics, Montesquieu gained his fame from his comparative research on society, law and management style. The philosopher, who adopted an inductive and experimental approach to politics and law, pushed to understand the facts instead of recording them, to make a comparative investigation about the phenomena, the basis of a systematic research on the principles of historical development.
Approaching the subject of politics, then, as a philosopher of history, Montesquieu said that different systems of positive law in different political societies are relative to a wide variety of factors, such as the character of the people, economic conditions and climate, etc. He called all these basic conditions the “spirit of the laws”. In this context, Montesquieu distinguished three types of management styles from each other and talked about the ruling principle, climate and soil appropriate to these states. Accordingly, despotism is suitable for large states, hot climates and is based on fear.
As in the case of Britain, the form of government suitable for medium-sized states, where a climate that is neither cold nor hot, is monarchy; this form of government is based on honor and glory. On the other hand, the regime suitable for cold climates and small states is democracy; Montesquieu, who claimed that the ruling principle of democracy is virtue, strongly opposed the rationality that accepted that there is a single natural law valid for all people and a universal human nature, and put forward the principle of separation of powers. .
Montesquieu’s life and works
What is the separation of powers principle?
Distribution of power and example of peripheral influence
Montesquieu’s understanding of society and history
Montesquieu as sociologist and philosopher
Montesquieu and the Persian Letters
Classification of forms of government and spirit of laws
Montesquieu and the philosophy of enlightenment
Montesquieu and Aristocratic Liberalism: The Case of France
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook Who is Quieu?