Who is Ebu’l-Hasan Bahmanyar?June 25, 2021
Ebu’l-Hasan Beh, one of the magnificent representatives of Eastern peripatetism (Maşşailik or Meshai school), the first great representative of Eastern peripatetism in Azerbaijan.
Abu’l-Hasan Behmenyar Marzban son, the great Azerbaijani philosopher, is one of the magnificent representatives of Eastern peripateticism. As a result of his research, Zakir Mammadov, correspondent member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, came to the conclusion that Behmenyar, the first great representative of Eastern peripateticism in Azerbaijan, was born at the end of the 10th century. The researcher showed this date as 993.
Medieval writers wrote that Bahmanyar was from “the land of Azerbaijan” (“a thousand bilads of Azerbaijan”), or “from Azerbaijan” (“al-Azerbaijan”). In the first sources, he is considered a fireper (macusi).
Some medieval writers say that he accepted Islam later.
Bahmanyar’s brilliant talent and hard work attracted the deep attention of Ibn Sina. The teacher then wrote proudly about his student: “He is more willing than the son to me. I gave him training and this level has been reached”.
Bahmanyar’s date of death is sometimes shown as 1038, sometimes in 1065, in 1066, in 1067 by different authors. Zakir Mammadov, a correspondent member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, stated that the philosopher died in the middle of 1066, according to the first sources.
Ebu’l-Hasan Bahmanyar lived less than thirty years after Ibn Sina. The stage of eastern peripateticism of the middle of the XI century is directly connected with its name. Preserving the traditions of Avicenna put serious and responsible duties on the philosopher. It should have ensured the forward development of aristothetic philosophy without sparing its strength. Maybe it was with this hope that Ibn Sina once wrote about his lovely student Bahmanyar: “There is nothing left for him to come in the end and be in my place.”
In Ebu’l-Hasan Behmenyar’s metaphysics, the degree of superiority of the concepts is determined by the width of the volume. In this respect, the concept of “being” with the largest volume and the largest generally is considered superior. It is stated in the book “Education” that “it is not possible to define logic as being. So much so that it is just the beginning of that conception, because for it there is neither gender nor distinguishing signs. In short, there is nothing more important to introduce existence”.
Existence reviewed from various aspects is obligatory and possible, cause and effect, first and occured, and p. is divided into parts. The classification of being in terms of the division of necessary and possible qismlərə has an important place in the ontology of all Eastern peripatetics.
Bahmanyar writes, examining the parts of existence mutually, that “a non-obligatory existence is a being whose existence cannot be assumed”. Possible existence is necessary neither in terms of its existence nor non-existence. The philosopher thus confirms such an idea that “obligatory existence is self-causeless existence, because if it had a cause in its own existence, existence would exist for the same reason. In it, it would not be a self-important existence. Possible existence is existence considered possible according to its own nature. So much so that its presence and absence is for a reason.”
In the Middle Ages, peripatetic philosophers were more preoccupied with the problems of nature than the representatives of other intellectual movements operating in the countries of the Muslim East. In order to have a deeper understanding of the secrets of nature, they first tried to grasp concrete material things and events directly. Therefore, in the gnoseology of Eastern peripatetism, the emotional stage of cognition was of great importance.
In the philosophy of Ebu’l-Hasan Bahmanyar, the feeling phase of cognition is divided into two parts in its turn. In the first part, the emotions, as they call it, external perceptions, and in the second part, internal feelings are mentioned.
The power of contemplation enables the idea of realization. In the philosophy of the eastern peripatetics, the problems of mental comprehension have been broadly clarified. According to the belief of the Aristotelian philosophers, information about the external aspects of things can be obtained through feelings, emotions and insights. As for the realization of the nature of things, it is only possible thanks to the mind.
Students and Followers
As a result of his research, Zakir Mammadov, a correspondent member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, reported for the first time that Ebu’l-Hasan Bahmanyar’s service was unmatched in achieving great successes in the fields of philosophy, logic and nature in the Muslim East countries in the Middle Ages. Behmenyar has shown great service in raising the generation of scientists who have come and gone in the last centuries. Thanks to Levkerini, one of the talented students of the Azerbaijani philosopher, the sciences of philosophy found success in Khorasan. In the development of peripatetic philosophy in the countries of the Muslim East, Bahmanyar, the scholars who were educated by him and their students played a major role. Like his teacher Ibn Sina, the Azerbaijani thinker also prepared a number of important scholars. Levkeri Mervi is more well known than them.
Zakir Mammadov was first known as the great philosopher, mathematician, poet, astronomer Omar Hayy.