Who is Ernest W. Burgess?June 25, 2021
Ernest W. Burge is one of the representatives of ecological theory together with Robert Park and Roderick McKenzie. Burgess developed a theory on the physical growth of the ecological field. Accordingly, the physical environment divided into natural areas is the cause of social organization.
According to Burgess, the most important aspect of modern society is the expansion and growth of cities. The urban outlook of modern life—the skyscraper, the subway, department stores, the daily newspaper, social work—is typically American.
Even the smallest changes in our social life lead to social problems. These are also observed in the most acute form in American cities. Growth and expansion processes have aspects specific to cities. He explains the growth of cities and various features that are the expression of this growth with the theory of ‘Concentric Circles’. (Tuna, 1987: 61)
The circles that E. Burgess describes as spatial growth and that contain each other also point to social changes. “In the process of spatial change, human communities change places, and there are differences in the use of residential and business spaces. At the end of the succession process, forming the transition zone near the city center; With the invasion of the center, deterioration and decrease in environmental quality are observed. This place has become a place where low-income groups live and crime rates increase. Spatial mobility has been the cause of social deterioration.”( Güllüpınar, 2013: 63))
Burgess’s theory of concentric circles symbolizes the functioning of the competitive economic system. The business district is located in the first flat. Next comes the transition zone. There are depressions in this region. While the workers’ regions are located in the second ring, the upper income groups are located in the outer regions.
In Burgess’s model of concentric circles describing urban growth, cities include the following regions:
Central Business District: The first circle is the center of the city and the business centers constitute the center and core of the city. In the first region, business centers, banks, shops, hotels, offices and financial institutions are located and land is expensive in this region. However, this region constantly needs to expand by threatening the surrounding settlements.
Wholesaler and Manufacturing Industry Zone (Transitional Zone): The second flat is poorer and undeveloped and consists of slum areas. The center is under constant threat of expansion. People do not want to live in these areas, which are usually close to factories, because they are surrounded by workers’ housing. It is an area where new immigrants and low-income people live. This region is under the threat of expansion of the center. As commercial activities expand into this area, former users of the area have to relocate; This situation also causes changes in land and housing prices.
Worker Settlement Center Area: The third flat is inhabited by blue-collar industrial workers with higher living standards. They prefer these areas to reach their workplaces more easily and to get away from the transition area.
Upper Class and Civil Servant Residential Area: The fourth flat is inhabited by civil servants, middle class and upper class people. This is a private, isolated district with modern shopping malls and luxury estates of the wealthy.
Suburban Area (Commuters): In the fifth flat, there are suburban areas and satellite cities in this region, which is quite far from the city limits and the central business districts. (Güllüpınar, 2013: 64)ss Who?