Who is Farabi?June 25, 2021
Who is Farabi? Farabi is an Islamic philosopher who is thought to be of Persian origin. Farabi; He was born in Farab city of Turkestan in 873 (Hijri 259) and received his primary education here.
Thanks to the education he received, Farabi learned Arabic, Persian, Greek and Latin at a good level, and with this knowledge, he read and studied the works of Aristotle and Plato, and took grammar and logic lessons from Ebu Bekr Serrac.
After these examinations and lessons, he conducted philosophy studies with Farabi Yuhanna bin Haylan, who devoted himself to philosophy. Farabi, who spent his time writing his philosophical thoughts, wrote these thoughts in Arabic.
Farabi was not only interested in philosophy, but also in the fields of music, mathematics and scientific method. So much so that it is said that Farabi invented the instrument called “kanun”. Farabi also made the classification of sciences.
Farabi sciences; He divided it into three as physics, mathematics and metaphysical sciences. This method of his was accepted by European scholars only in the thirteenth century.
Farabi made the first logical explanation of the sound phenomenon, which consists of air vibrations. He determined that the vibrations decrease and increase according to the wavelength, by doing experiments. With this discovery, he also found the bases necessary for the construction of musical instruments and developed the instrument of the law, as we have just mentioned.
Farabi, who also works in the field of medicine, has written works on various drugs on this subject.
FARABI and PHILOSOPHY
Farabi, whose real name is Muhammed bin Tehran bin Uzlug and who is known as Alpharabius in Western sources, studied the principles of the Travellers School by reading the works of Aristotle together with Yuhanna bin Haylan, whom he met while doing philosophy research in Harran. has learned.
Farabi, who was the guest of Hamadani ruler Seyfüddevle in Aleppo, lived in Arab countries, tried to keep the Turkish identity and Turkish customs alive, and was frequently used by writers named Abul Hasan al-Beyhaki, İbn-el-Kıfti, İbn Ebu Useybiye, İbn el-Hallikan in the Islamic world. interpreted.
Farabi adopted the concept of matter and form, which was put forward by Aristotle, without making any changes, and saw matter and form, or in his words, form, as two basic principles in the formation of things, that is, in creation.
Farabi’s physics also depends on metaphysics. Accordingly, the four elements (earth, air, fire, water) that make up the essence of the universe and things came out of the first substance, al-aklul-active. These four elements fuse with each other to a certain extent, diverge and form the universe we live in (al-alam).
While Farabi defines the human being, “The world is a great human; man is a small realm.” He combined these two concepts.
According to him, the basis of human morality is knowledge; The mind separates the good from the bad only with knowledge. Knowledge, which is the highest virtue for man, cannot be obtained as a result of the work of the human brain; because it is divine, it is innate.
Science has three sources: sense, reason and evil eye.
Farabi is also known as the “Second Teacher”.
FARABI’S SENSE OF BEING
The “existence”, which the human mind finds indefinable because it is the most general concept that human mind can reach, is interpreted in a hierarchy descending from the First Cause, that is, God, which is the most competent in Fârâbî’s thought system, to the “first matter” (the ghost) at the lowest level of perfection.
After the First Cause, “discrete minds”, “active mind”, “soul”, “form” (form) and “matter” come respectively.
Fârâbî, who considers existence in two categories as necessary and contingent being, explains the relationship between contingent beings and necessary being, that is, God, with the theory of emanation. According to him, since God, the source of all kinds of goodness and perfection, could not have intended the world, the world came into existence by a kind of necessity and by “overflowing” (emanation, feyezan).
As a result of the absolute consciousness and knowledge of God, who is pure reason, the “first mind” emerged/overflowed from him. The first mind, which is “necessary” relative to God, but “possible” in essence, has the character of multiplicity because it is aware of this, and this situation causes the soul and matter of the second mind, the first celestial sphere, to overflow.
This process and operation continues until the tenth, the active mind, which is considered the principle of any change in the sublunar realm.
FARABI’S CLASSIFICATION OF SCIENCES AND LOGIC UNDERSTANDING
Farabi, in his work titled “Count of Sciences” (İhsâ’ü’l-ulûm), which he wrote in order to classify sciences, defines the sciences in which he states the definition, theoretical and practical value of each and its importance in education and training, respectively, as language, logic, mathematics, philosophy and civil sciences. grouped under five main headings.
Al-Farabi, who draws attention especially with his achievements in the field of logic, divides logic into two parts: “concepts” (tasawwurat) and “judgments/propositions” (tasdiqat).
Taking into account the etymology of the name logic, one of the two functions of the discipline of logic, which is related to the production of the concept and thought of the mind, is related to “inner speech”, speech and discourse.