Who is Francis Bacon?June 25, 2021
Francis Bacon KFrancis Bacon (1561 – 1626) was an English statesman and philosopher.
Born on January 22, 1561, Francis Bacon is the son of Queen Elizabeth I’s justice minister, Nicholas Bacon. Although Francis Bacon’s reputation eclipsed that of his father, his father, Nicholas Bacon, was more than just an ordinary man, but one of the famous names of his time.
Francis Bacon was introduced to scholastic philosophy at Trinity College, Cambridge, which he entered at the age of twelve, and the seeds of his opposition to scholastic philosophy were planted here. After starting to study Law in 1576, he received an offer to work for the English ambassador in France. Accepting the offer, he interrupted his studies and went to France. In these years, when Bacon’s love for philosophy was beginning to germinate, he suddenly received the news of his father’s death in 1579. When he returned to England with his pockets empty, all he could do was continue his law studies. After completing his education, he started working as a lawyer. He yearned for the luxurious life he was accustomed to since childhood, so he worked for a political career while working as a lawyer. As a matter of fact, he was elected to the Parliament in 1584.
He had a close friendship with the Earl of Essex. But their friendship was disrupted by the earl of Essex’s plans to overthrow Queen Elizabeth I. Stating that his devotion to the Queen was great, Bacon tried for a long time to turn his friend away from his ideas. After a failed assassination attempt on the Queen, the Earl of Essex was arrested. Released by Bacon’s efforts, the count later made a new attempt to overthrow the Queen. This time when he was arrested, he was found guilty and executed. Meanwhile, Bacon’s star was on the rise, and although he had made life-threatening enemies as a result of his relationships with the Earl of Essex, his devotion to the Queen had undoubtedly given him great career opportunities.
He quickly rose to prominence when James I ascended the throne as the Queen’s heir apparent in 1603. He was first given the title of “Sir”, then became Attorney General in 1606 and Chief Justice of England in 1618. When he was at the peak of his career, his collapse knocked on the door. He was arrested and tried for bribery in 1621. He was found guilty and sentenced to prison. He did not stay long in prison and was released, but it was then impossible for him to occupy either Parliament or any political position. Breaking from politics, Bacon devoted the remaining years of his life to his philosophical thoughts. He died of an illness presumed to be pneumonia in 1626.
Francis Bacon, who was born in London to a family close to the royal family; He wrote the works “Essays”, “New Atlantis” and “New Organon”. Against Aristotle’s “deductive” method, Bacon proposes the “induction” method (Figure 3.7). According to Bacon, there are obstacles to right thought, wrong ideas, and idols as he puts it. Knowing nature begins with an orientation to it. In order for the results of this orientation to form correct knowledge, the mind must be freed from the experiences and influences of the previous life. For the correct knowledge of nature, the mind first turns to it; It should get rid of delusions, prejudices and idols, that is, “idols” as F. Bacon calls it. According to him, there are four idols that hinder the mind: tribe (ancestry), cave, bazaar-market and theater idols.
It is possible to get rid of these wrong ideas and judgments by induction. In scientific research, factual data should be brought together and organized according to a certain rule. The inferences of the scholastic tradition based on uncontrollable assumptions and wrong ideas should be abandoned. Wide-ranging generalizations made to phenomena by observation and experimentation should be taken as a basis on the road to being scientific. However, after these stages, it is possible to switch to the deductive method.
Bacon tried to break the influence of scholastic scholars during his lifetime. It enabled the establishment of the Royal Academy of Sciences, which brought together important scientists. Bacon, 15-17 in terms of explaining the scientific method and giving scientific research an institutional identity. century philosophy. In addition, the importance given to the factual and scientific knowledge has formed the epistemic foundations of today’s positivist philosophy. Bacon and God
Although he was at times accused of atheism (atheism), Bacon made it clear that he was against atheism. While his philosophy was built on a secular basis, very rationally, and he did not place much value on religion in his works, he presents ideas on religion and God that will perhaps surprise his readers; “Better to believe in sacred myths than to think that this universal framework is adrift. Less philosophy leads the human mind to atheism, but in philosophy depth turns people’s minds to religion.”
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open O