Who is Francis Hutcheson?June 25, 2021
Francis Hutches was an Irish philosopher who lived from 1694 to 1746.
He is one of the most important figures of the Scottish enlightenment. He also taught Adam Smith at Glasgow University.
He is one of the most important representatives of the Scottish Enlightenment. He was born in 1694 to a Scottish family in the north of Ireland. Like most of the thinkers of that time, he was the son of a Presbyterian priest and was educated at Dublin’s most important religious institutions. Already at that time, the fatherly education was generally given in churches and other religious institutions. With his intelligence and deep thoughts, Hutcheson is sent to Glasgow University, which attracts the attention of his teachers. Here he studied logic, philosophy, classical languages and theology. After graduating as a presbyterian pastor, Hutcheson was commissioned to establish an academy. Afterwards, he was appointed professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow University, where he graduated, and lived a quiet life there until his death. His most important works are “inquiry into the original of our ideas of beauty and virtuevesystem of moral philosophy”.
The pessimist and cynic, who expressed the general views of Hobbes and Mandeville about human nature, that “man is always selfish and evil”, opposed the views and claimed that there is an essential goodness in human, which is a cliché for today. The candide debate between Voltaire and Leibniz immediately comes to mind. Moreover, Hutcheson has always argued that man is not egoistic, that the philosophers mentioned above do not understand our reactions to actions and facts, that our moral judgments and satires are much deeper than they think.
1) What is naturally good and what is morally good
2) Morally good versus morally bad
3) He argues that he makes distinctions between what is directly or essentially good and what is instrumentally good.
Hutcheson, who advocated utilitarianism before Jeremy Bentham and guided both Bentham and other utilitarians, advocates the principle of “the greatest happiness for the many”. Hutcheson, who has a utilitarian understanding of ethics, says that this principle is in all people. According to him, benevolence and philanthropy are virtuous actions. These actions create a feeling of enjoyment in us. this enjoyment is independent of the benefit it provides to the person. According to him, moral sense is a natural faculty.
Hutcheson, who resents Locke’s statement that beauty and virtue have no objective equivalents, also objects to Locke’s view that his interpretation of pleasure and pain is too narrow, and that there are no other senses than the five senses. According to him, Locke’s inability to see the senses of beauty and morality is a great mistake. Human nature was far more complex than Locke had imagined.