Who is Friedrich Hegel?June 25, 2021
Friedrich Hegel Hegel is the famous German philosopher who, by establishing a great system, accomplished what Kant said was impossible, namely, a rational metaphysics. He was an idealistic German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in what is now southwestern Germany. Its influence has been wide-ranging on people in very different positions, both those who admire it and those who criticize it ruthlessly.
He suggested, probably for the first time in philosophy, that history and structure are important in order to break out of the vicious circle of the constantly debated problems of philosophy. The conceptualization of the master-slave dialectic underlined the importance of the other for self-awareness.
The son of a civil servant, Hegel began teaching philosophy in Bern and Frankfurt after studying theology in Tübingen. He became a professor at the University of Jena in 1805. Initially, he seemed to believe in Schelling’s philosophy of subjective idealism, then he set up a separate system for himself and began to defend it. He described this philosophical system he founded in his work called “phanomenologie des Geistes”. After staying in Nuremberg for a while, he became a professor at the University of Berlin and Heidelberg. Among the works he wrote in this period, “Science of Logic” and “Encyclopedia of Philosophy” drew attention.
The system Hegel established is called dialectical logic. Accordingly, an idea (that is, thesis) is mixed with another thesis (anti-thesis) opposite it, and a new understanding emerges from this, which is called synthesis.
Although Hegel believed in Kant’s philosophy, he found his ideas insufficient. Unlike Kant, he believed that people could learn anything. For Hegel, the world meant logic. As soon as people solved the limits of logic, they would also have solved the limits of human beings. For Hegel, the only living philosophy is the philosophy of contradictions—or rather, of opposites; the flower gives rise to the fruit, but for the fruit to appear, the flower must disappear. So the reality of reproduction is to be both flower and fruit. Death is both annihilation and the condition for rebirth.
Hegel spent the last years of his life in Berlin. He became one of the last victims of the cholera epidemic that lasted through the summer and autumn of 1831. He died suddenly on 14 November after a short illness.
The main works of Hegel, who lived between 1770-1831: Phanomenologie des Geistes (Phenomenology of Spirit), Wissenschaft der Logik (Science of Logic), Enzyklopadie der Philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse (Encyclopedia of Philosophical Sciences), Grundlinien der Philosophie des Philosophy Rechts ).
What is absolute idealism?
Hegel’s understanding of history and consciousness
What is the philosophy of culture?
Hegel’s dialectical method
Dialectics and the world
The Hegelian Version of the Distinction between Reason and Nature
Hegel and the Phenomenology of Knowledge
Hegel’s Philosophy of the State, Understanding of the State
Hegel’s Philosophy of Property
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook