Who is Friedrich Schelling?

Who is Friedrich Schelling?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

Friedrich Schelli Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling was a German idealist thinker who lived from 1775 to 1854.

Schelling is the son of a priest. Being a bright and talented boy, he matured very early and was awarded the title of Professor at the age of twenty-two thanks to a book he wrote about Fichte’s philosophy. Throughout his life, he did not hesitate to constantly change his thoughts and believe in new understandings. After all, it is difficult to show their scattered ideas as a whole.

According to Schelling, all nature is the creation of an unconscious intelligence. Nature is not an irregular and scattered structure, on the contrary, it is bound to a strict order and purpose. Therefore there must be a creative principle in nature. Such a principle must be of a spiritual nature of creative intelligence. Only man has spiritual consciousness in this universe. Therefore, creative intelligence is an unconscious intelligence.

Thus, Schelling, unlike Fichte, found the creative principle outside of the “I”, whereas Fichte understood everything through the “I”. This intelligence also develops and goes through various stages as it develops. The last of these steps is consciousness. In other words, he is human because he has a conscious intelligence. This cascading development design is more like Leibniz’s philosophy.

Also, according to him, nature and intelligence (spirit) are identical. After all, organic and inorganic entities adhere to the same principles. We cannot explain inorganic beings with a mechanistic theory, the life force is found in all nature, even in the simplest physical being, all nature is a living organism. Schelling’s dualism is important here. According to him, wherever we look in the universe, we find a duality, a contradiction; The poles of the magnet, positive and negative electricity, femininity, masculinity, etc. Nature was originally united, undivided.

At this point, Schelling applied Fitche’s three-stage doctrine of thesis, antithesis and synthesis to the development of nature. Nature evolves through division, the opposite of unity. The opposing forces in nature form higher beings by constantly merging and dividing at a higher level. Therefore, every higher being is a synthesis of lower beings. The “unity”, the force at the beginning of this whole process, must be alive. Therefore, all nature is alive.

But this living nature, this intelligence is unconscious. However, in the developmental stage, it constantly moves towards consciousness. Each new being created has come a little closer to consciousness. In the end, nature reaches its consciousness in man. Although man is too small to be noticed in nature, he is the purpose of nature, the last link in the chain, the cause of all existence and the being that makes all nature meaningful.

The philosophy of art also has an important place in his teaching. Besides being a living organism, nature is a work of art of unconscious creative force. Here, the activity of creation is associated neither with knowledge nor with action. The power behind creation is art. Just as nature is the creation of an unconscious power, the works of art of people are the creation of conscious power.

Each work of art is a universe in itself and understanding the essence of existence is only possible through art. Artists and philosophers are also people who understand the creative power and know the truth. This is the fate of these people, and that is why they are different from other people. In the work of art, a momentary state of finite nature manifests itself as an infinite and pure existence. Therefore, the work of art is superior to nature, it is a conscious creation. Thus, Schelling transcends the distinction between nature and consciousness with his philosophy of art.

Over time, Schelling’s philosophy took on a mystical and religious aspect and had little influence in philosophical circles. Schelling represented Romanticism in German idealism that started with Kant and Fichte.

Subject Headings
Schelling’s Objective Idealism
Schelling’s Philosophy of Identity

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