Who is Gaetano Mosca?June 25, 2021
(April 1, 1858 Palermo, Italy – November 8, 1941 Rome, Italy)
20th century Italian sociologist who lived in the early years. With the ruling classes thesis, “there have always been ruling classes in history, it cannot be avoided, there are rulers, there are ruled.” He gave the first signs of the ‘elite theory’ with such words and drew a conservative portrait. It gives simple and detailed information about the nature of the ruling classes in history.
Italian political scientist, journalist and bureaucrat. He helped develop the theory of elitism with his Political Class thesis. Along with Vilfredo Pareto and Robert Michels, he is one of the proponents of elitism in Italy.
According to Gaetano Mosca, all societies are divided into two as the ruling class and the ruled class. The ruling class is the minority elite group that undertakes political functions and benefits from the blessings of power. The ruled class, on the other hand, is the majority group under the control of the ruling class.
The reason why the ruling class is in a dominant position against being in the minority is because it is organized. According to Mosca, “it is inevitable that a minority, acting with a single motive and motive, will dominate an unorganized and dispersed majority”. In addition, members of the ruling class have various superior and special abilities and an important position in society. The ruling class uses various methods to keep masses of people under control. First of all, it is necessary to regulate the law according to its own interests and to create an ideological propaganda order accordingly. When the ruling class is in a difficult situation, it may resort to different methods (violence, use of force, deception, cheating, coup, etc.).
Due to social dynamics, ruling classes may change or diversify over time. If this happens slowly and regularly, reforms occur, if it happens suddenly and violently, revolutions occur. Mosca’s ruling class, like Marx’s ruling class, is formed not only according to economic advantages, but also according to different criteria such as intellectual, education, family, lineage, success. According to Mosca, the ruling class has always existed and will continue to exist. A classless society is not possible.