Who is George Berkeley?June 25, 2021
George Berkeley; Irish clergyman and philosopher (Dysert 1685-Oxford 1753).
He studied philosophy and theology (theology). He served in the church and became bishop of Cloyne (Ireland) in 1734. He laid the foundations of his philosophy at a very young age in three books that he published back to back. The first, A New Theory of Visim, 1709, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychology.
Treatise concerning the principles of human knowledge 1710 and Three Dialaguen between Hylas and Philanoun 1713 are among the classics of idealistic philosophy. Berkeley thought took philosophy to its extreme. He linked the problematic of the relationship between the existence of the external world and human knowledge to an extreme article that completely negates it.
According to Berkeley, there is no independent external world outside of human thought, perception. “To be is to be perceived” (Esse est percipi). “Matter” is nothing but an abstraction and delusion. The philosopher who theorizes “immaterialism” (immaterialism) with this approach accepts the necessity of being a perceiver for perception, but connects it to the soul. While delusions, delusions and dreams originate from the “finite soul” (man), the cause of external reality, albeit delusion, is the “eternal spirit” (God). Although Berkeley’s thought cannot hold up against science because it takes philosophy to the end of its logic, it is the inevitable source of contemporary thoughtful movements (kabaderian criticism, immanentism) and philosophers (Mach, Kauffmann, Schuffe).
George Berkeley, the son of a wealthy Anglican family. While he was studying in Dublin, he thought that with the purification and perfecting of philosophy and science, a wisdom that would fit perfectly with Christianity would be attained, and he devoted his life to the realization of this purpose. After publishing important philosophical writings, he went to the USA and made trips. He returned to his homeland in 1731. In 1734, the diocese of Cioyne, in southern Ireland, was sympathetic to Catholics.
He suggested that only spirits and their ideas exist in the world, whereas matter does not exist.
He was an Irish Protestant educated at Trinity College, Dublin. While still in his twenties, he published all of his well-known philosophical works (1709 Essay on a New Theory of Sight, 1710 A Work on the Principles of Human Knowledge, and 1713 Three Discourses between Hylas and Philonous).
He worked hard to develop higher education in the New World; To this end, he spent three years in the American colonies. He left his farm and library in Rhode Island to Yale University, which was founded in 1701. One of Yale’s faculties was named after him. The city of Berkeley in California is also named after him. Berkeley died in Oxford at the age of 67.
He was born in Kilkennv to an English family settled in Ireland. He died in Oxford. At the age of 15 he entered Trinity College, Dublin. Seven years later, he became a lecturer there. In 1709, at the age of 24, he published his first major book: An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision. The following year, his masterpiece of philosophy, A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge, was published. He gained great fame with them. He went to London in 1713. He had his last important philosophy book, “Dialoglar”, published there. He made all his contribution to philosophy before the age of 30, and did not deal with this subject again in the later part of his life.
When he lost the second volume of his masterpiece on a trip to Europe in 1716, without publishing it, he did not even think of rewriting it. During these years in London, during his European tours with Addison, Pope, Swift, and Steele at intervals between 1713 and 1720, Malebranche is said to have died in a philosophy debate that followed this meeting in 1715. He left his post at Trinity College in 1724. He went to London and started raising money to set up a school in Bermuda. Two years later, the parliament decided that the state should also contribute financially to this project. He married in 1728 and went to America.
He carried out the preparations of the Bermuda project in Rhode Island. When the money he expected from the state did not come, he had to return to England. He became bishop of Cloyne in Ireland in 1734. There are other books and articles in print that are not as valuable as his masterpieces.
Also please see:
Berkeley’s Idealistic Theory
Berkeley – Locke Relationship
Berkeley’s Philosophy of Being
Berkeley’s Understanding of Philosophy of Information
Berkeley’s Understanding of Metaphysics
What is Key Insight?
What is impersonality?
What Does Existence Mean to Be Perceived?
Berkeley’s Theory of Design
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook