Who is Gottfried Leibniz?June 25, 2021
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646-1716); A famous German philosopher is one of the most important systems thinkers in the world of science. He is known for his new ideas and views in the fields of mathematics, metaphysics and logic.
Leibniz was born in Leipzig. His father taught moral philosophy at the university here. Leibniz dropped out of school after his father’s death and began self-education. He had a great interest in history. By the time he was 8 years old, he had learned Latin. He started learning Greek at the age of 12.
At the same time, he was reading books on logic. At the age of 15 he entered the University of Leipzig. He studied philosophy from Jakob Thomasius, who is considered the founder of the history of philosophy in Germany. He went to Jena in 1663 and took lessons from famous mathematicians there.
Leibniz had many important works published by the time he was 25 years old. He was interested in politics for a while, and he wrote some works on this subject.
Political studies never stood in the way of Leibniz’s work in philosophy and mathematics. Leibniz began his studies of advanced modern mathematics in 1672, at the age of 26. Three years later, he discovered the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus independently of Isaac Newton. Leibniz and Isaac Newton are now considered the fathers of Calculus, although for many years there has been a debate among supporters of Leibniz and Isaac Newton about who discovered Calculus.
He left his post in 1700 and went to Vienna, where he lived until 1714. In 1700, on an invitation, he went to Berlin. He became the first director of the university, leading to the establishment of the University of Berlin.
He left his post in 1711 and went to Vienna, where he lived until 1714. In 1712 Leibniz was given the rank of baron, but when he died in Hanover four years later, he was buried like a poor man. His friend J. G. von Erckhart, who was the only man who cried after him, described this funeral in his later memoirs with the sentence ‘This man who represents the honor of his country was buried like a beggar’.
Leibniz, like most of the 17th century philosophers, moves from Descartes’ concept of substance in his philosophy. According to Leibniz, there are ‘monads’ (individual entities, indivisible essences) on the basis of the world and beings. Monads are basic entities that can move and perceive on their own. Only because the essence of monads is ‘force’, they have neither shape, volume, nor parts. It is necessary to think of monads as spiritual points whose essence is ‘deed’ (activity). Therefore, monads act on their own. What distinguishes them from the atoms of Democritus and the materialists is that they cannot be material, but can move on their own. The act of each of the monads, the result of the past, is the determinant of the future.
According to Leibniz, monads exist in a predetermined order. This is called preorder theory.
According to the Leibniz system of thought, the principles of thought, general ideas, exist in the human mind as a form of employment and develop with experience. Leibniz, in his work called ‘Theodizee’, said that the world we live in is the most orderly and perfect of the worlds. Leibniz’s view was tried to be made ridiculous in Voltaire’s long story called ‘Candide’.
Leibniz’s philosophical understanding
What is the Gottfried Leibniz Prize?
Leibniz’s understanding of method
Simple substances or monads
The understanding of the soul-body relationship in Leibniz
God and the pre-established principle of harmony
Leibniz’s philosophy of knowledge
Leibniz’s doctrine of substance
Leibniz’s Teaching of the Monad
God-Universe Relation in Leibniz
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook