Who is Ibn Rushd?June 25, 2021
Ibn Rushd, whose real name is Muhammad, was born in Cordoba (Cordoba) in 1126 as the child of a distinguished family who had a reputation in the field of law.
Averroes or Averroys in Latin, Aben Roşd among the Jews in Andalusia, Aven Roşd among the Spaniards, Aben Roşd in Andalusia, known as “co-sharah” in the Islamic world and “commentator” in the Latin world, because he commented on the works of Aristotle by adhering to his doctrine. has been mentioned.
(Gauthier, 1948: 1): In accordance with the tradition of the period and the region, Ibn Rushd learned reading, writing, grammar and basic religious knowledge, which was the first step of his education life, from his father. Taking lessons from the leading scholars of the period in different fields ranging from law to medicine, from mathematics to philosophy, Ibn Rushd’s close friendship with the famous physician Ibn Zuhr played an important role in his success in the field of medicine.
In the 11th century, Avicenna became a brilliant interpreter and representative of Aristotelian philosophy in the eastern part of the Islamic world, but a century later, philosophy fell out of favor in the Islamic world with the criticisms of Ghazali. XII. At the end of the century, Aristotelianism, and therefore philosophy, but this time free of new Plantonian elements, found its first and last defender in Andalusia, at the western end of the Islamic world. Ibn Rushd became known with the commentaries he wrote on the basic books of Aristotle, on the one hand, and on the other hand, for revealing that there is not a conflict between philosophy and religion, but a unity, and that these two should be considered as two separate forms of expression and understanding of a single truth.
Born as the son of a distinguished family who had a reputation in the field of law, Ibn Rushd was known as a “co-commentator” in the Islamic world and as a “commentator” in the Latin world because he commented on the works of Aristotle by adhering to his doctrine. The thinker, who was intensely interested in medicine and philosophy as well as religious sciences, was appointed by the famous physician-philosopher Ibn Tufeyl to the ruler Yusuf b. After being introduced to Abdul Mu’min, he continued to work on Aristotle’s works with his encouragement and support. The philosopher, who also took on duties such as kadi and palace physician, passed away on December 10, 1198 (9 Safer 595) in Merakeş. When Ibn Rushd completed his seventy-two-year life, which he lived to the fullest, he left behind two sons, one of whom was a doctor and the other a lawyer, and many students and many works.
The number of his works, which he wrote in every field he was interested in and most of which were translated into Latin and Hebrew, is around eighty, and his works have been translated into Turkish: ve akâ’idi’l-mille, Faslu’l-makal, ed-Damime), Metaphysics (Cevâmi’ u Mâba’de’t-tabî’a), Psychology (Telhisu Kitâbi’n-Nefs), On Politics Basic Information (Telhîsü’s- Siyaseli Elfatun).
By using the term “existence” (existence) instead of “existence” (wujud), Ibn Rushd reveals that he thinks differently from Avicenna in the discussion of the existence-being (wujud-essence) relationship. According to the philosopher, who considers the existence of something as the tangible and the intelligible aspect of the same thing, just as the first matter and the form do not exist separately in a real sense, they always exist together and can only be separated from each other in the mind, the relationship between being and being is just like this. In that case, being and being can only be separated in the mind, not in the external world. The mental is not the thing itself, but the definition that shows it and the universal concepts that make up the definition. Therefore, it is possible to talk about the epistemological and logical value of the distinction between being and being, not ontologically.
The beings in the external world are in a causal (illet-ma’lûl) relationship with each other. In this relationship, causation means being active (agent) and being causal means being in a “passive” (munfâil) position, and the principle of passivity from these two opposite qualities is “matter” and the principle of activity is “form”. It is the First Principle, which is constantly in action, that is, God, that ensures the “unification” of matter and form. There are essentially two types of beings outside the mind, one of which is “necessary-causeless” and the other “necessary-caused” that exists by combining matter and form.
Although it is clear that there is a causal relationship between the universe, which is the sum of the necessary beings and the contingent beings, the problem of how this relationship takes place has made the theologians and philosophers very busy. Concerning this problem, which is also called the eternity and aftermath of the world, Ibn Rushd insists on the fact that there is a creator (agent) of the world, and sees him as the “real agent” who brings the world out of nothingness and perpetuates its existence. Unlike the understanding that includes the claim that the world is eternal in its own essence, Ibn Rushd, with his theory of “continuous creation”, on the one hand, the idea that the world is “continuous” in terms of being the act of a competent and necessary Creator, and on the other hand, it must be “absent” in its own essence defends in between.
Understanding the mind and knowledge as “understanding the order and arrangement of beings and the causal relationship between them”.