Who is Ibn Sina?

Who is Ibn Sina?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

Philosopher, physician and versatile Persian scientist.

Ibn-i Sina (known as Avicenna in the West), the son of Abdullah Bin Sina, one of the clerks of the Samanoğulları palace, took lessons from his father, the famous scholar Natili, and İsmail Zahit. He worked on geometry (especially Euclidean geometry), logic, fiqh, naif, medicine and natural science. When he learned Aristotle’s philosophy and metaphysics through al-Ibane’s of Farabi and healed the sick Bukhara prince (997), he had the opportunity to benefit from the palace library.

When his father died, he received support from Abu Muhammed from Shiraz in Curcan (he wrote the Medical Law in Cürcan). He studied the works of all the Greek philosophers and Anatolian naturalists known in his age.

Ibn Sina was born in Afshana village near Bukhara (currently in Uzbekistan) in 340 AH (980) and died in the city of Hamedan (Iran) in 427 AH (1037 Gregorian). He has written 200 books in different fields, focusing on medicine and philosophy. He is known to Westerners as the founder of medieval modern science and the leader of physicians, and is known as the “Grand Master”. He became famous with his book called El-Kanun fi’t-Tıb (The Law of Medicine), which continued as a basic source work in the field of medicine for 7 centuries, and this book was taught as a basic work in medical science in European universities until the middle of the 17th century. He is a Persian and Turkish scientist.

İbn-i Sina studied medicine under a physician named Kuşyar. He wrote about 450 articles on various topics, 240 of which have survived. Of the articles we have, 150 are on philosophy and 40 are on medicine. The most famous of his works are Kitabü’ş-Şifa (Book of Healing), which is a very extensive work covering philosophy and science, and Al-Kanun fi’t-Tıb (The Law of Medicine). This latter was taught in medieval universities. In fact, this work became a textbook in Montpellier and Louvain until 1650.

Avicenna’s life and works

Avicenna, whose real name is Hussein, is also known as “esh-shayhu’r-reis” meaning “chief master” in the Islamic world, and is known as Avicenna in the West. Because of his father Abdullah’s close circle in Bukhara, Avicenna met philosophy from an early age and memorized the Qur’an; then he took courses in geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, logic and philosophy, as well as language, literature and religious sciences.

His appointment to the palace physician at the age of eighteen provided an important opportunity for him to benefit from the palace library, which also contains a rich medical and philosophical literature. The philosopher, who also served as a vizier for a while in the state, met his student Cüzcânî, who was a great support for him, in Cürcan, where he came after leaving Gürgenç in 1005, after a journey that lasted for about seven years, and wrote most of his works here and also gave lectures. Ibn Sînâ, who could not be successful in curing the disease he caught, died in 1037, when he was fifty-seven years old, during the Hamadan expedition.

Islamic philosophy, which started with Kindi’s studies and systematized by Fârâbî in terms of terminology, methods and problems, lived its golden age with Avicenna. As a philosopher with a system, he has been the thinker who focused on the problem of knowledge the most, as well as ontology and psychology among Islamic philosophers. Most of his works were translated into Latin and Hebrew in the Middle Ages, and his influence on the West continued for centuries through “Latin Avicennaism”. Some of his works are: Introduction to Logic, On Interpretation, II. Analytics, Metaphysics I-II, Physics, I-II, Kitâbu’l-Hidaye, an-Necât, On the Truth of Oneness and Proof of Prophecy, Signs and Admonitions.

Ibn Sina’s understanding of being

According to Ibn Sînâ, who uses “philosophy” and “wisdom” as synonymous terms, philosophy in the most general sense is “the perfection of man by being aware of the truth of things or all existing things”. The existing ones are divided into two parts:

Beings whose existence is not dependent on human will and action, such as God, mind/angel and natural objects.
They are things that come into existence with human will and action.

The knowledge about the beings in the first part is called theoretical (theoretical) philosophy, and the knowledge about the things in the second group is called practical (practical) philosophy. While the aim of theoretical philosophy is to enable people to become competent by knowing, practical philosophy aims to reach moral competence by doing and applying what is known. Ibn Sînâ says that the concept of existence is the most general and clear concept that the human mind can reach, therefore it cannot be defined.

According to him, knowledge about existence and metaphysics in general is not an indirect knowledge based on logical proofs, but knowledge that is directly grasped by reason. Avicenna argues that all beings other than God, who is a necessary being, have a conceptual reality called “quiddity” as well as their “existence” which expresses their existence in the outside world. According to Ibn Sînâ, the real definition (al-haddü’l-hakîkî) obtained from the close genus of something and its close chapter is the essential (essential