Who is Ibrahim Nazzam?

Who is Ibrahim Nazzam?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

Ibrahim Nazzam (b. 775, d. 845) (full name Ibrahim ibn Sayyar al-Nazzam) was born in Basra, Iraq in 775, and died in Baghdad in 845. Philosopher and theologian. He is one of the important and original names of Mutezile philosophers like Ebu’l-Huzeyl.

Nazzam was based on natural philosophy and tried to rise to the idea of ​​God based on it. According to him, nature or the universe were created according to a wisdom of Allah. He asserts that everything known as the laws of nature conforms to God’s creation. God is a will that is limited by the necessity of freedom as commanding and coercive. Nazzam is similar to the peripatetic philosophers on this point, but does not make exactly the same argument. While peripatetic philosophers regard necessity and God as one and the same thing, Nazzam differs from this idea in the question of creation. In the first act, he sees the action of a free but rational will given by Allah. A kind of opposition is thus placed between freedom and reason.

Nazzam is based on the metaphysical system of Anaxagoras in explaining his philosophy; He develops a theory called kümûn and buruz. Accordingly, everything that occurs in nature is the emergence of the latent; that in the latent, everything that has been and will be is present. Everything is revealed from the hidden. According to this, everything happened at once and suddenly. Events are things that happen, this is the unveiling of what has happened. Nazzam thus states creation as a free action.

İbrahim Nazzam, who is also a rationalist thinker, argues that every divine activism can be proved rationally and logically. On this basis, he explains Allah as infinite (eternal) and everything else as finite (hadith); As a peripatetic philosopher, he sees and evaluates Allah as free from adjectives. It accepts the free will of man and states that it is problematic for this reason.

Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM)