Who is Isaac Newton?June 25, 2021
Isaac Newton, (25 December 1642 – died 31 March 1727). English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, inventor, philosopher and alchemist. He is considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians and scientists. He made great contributions to the scientific revolution and the development of heliocentrism.
Isaac Newton was born on December 25, 1642 in Lincolnshire, England. He had lost his farmer father three months before he was born. His mother got married a second time. Isaac, who had three half-brothers from a second marriage, was staying with his grandmother. Newton enrolled at King’s School in Grantham at the age of twelve, graduating from this school in 1661. In the same year he entered Trinity College at Cambridge University. He received his bachelor’s degree from this school in April 1665. The university was closed due to the plague epidemic that raged when he was going to start his graduate studies.
Newton, who took refuge in his mother’s farm to protect himself from the epidemic, made his most important discoveries during the two years he spent there. When he returned to Trinity College as a lecturer in 1667, he laid the foundations of differential and integral calculus, determined that white light could be separated into its colored components, and concluded that objects attract each other inversely proportional to the square of their distances. Because of his shyness, Newton published many of these discoveries, each of which would revolutionize science, many years later (for example, differential and integral calculus 38 years later). After completing his graduate studies the following year, Newton was made professor of mathematics at Cambridge University in 1669 at the age of 27. He built the first reflecting telescope in 1671, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society the following year. When his paper on the phenomenon of color, which he presented to the Royal Society, was the target of criticism, especially by Robert Hooke, Newton closed himself completely and cut off his relationship with the scientific world.
In 1675, his two papers on optics sparked new controversy. Hooke claimed that some of the results in the articles were his own invention and that Newton owned them. As a result of all these discussions and criticisms, Newton, who fell into a mental depression in 1678, returned to his scientific studies six years later only with the efforts of his close friend, the famous astronomer and mathematician Edmond Halley.
Newton, who spearheaded the resistance movement against the efforts to spread and dominate Catholicism at Cambridge University, was elected as the university’s representative in the parliament in 1689 after the king was overthrown. In 1693 he fell into a mental depression again and fell out with his close friends, meanwhile Samuel Pepys and John Locke. Although he regained his health after a two-year rest period, he did not have the same interest in scientific work in his next life. He was later elected foreign fellow of the French Academy of Sciences in 1699 and President of the Royal Society in 1703. Newton ‘If I can see ahead of other people, it’s because I’m on the shoulders of giants.’ He showed that he did not forget those who helped him.
He was born into a farmer family in a town in England. He became a professor at Cambridge University at the age of 27 and was knighted royally for his contribution to science. He wrote the works “Principles” and “Optics”, including the famous Newton’s Laws. He worked on Galilei’s principle of inertia and added the quantitative concept known as mass to this principle. He revealed the “laws of motion”, which are accepted as one of the most important laws of physics. These laws paved the way for mathematical calculation of the motion of an object.
In addition to the laws of motion, Newton discovered the “Law of Gravity”, which is known today as the law of gravity, with his studies on mass. He explained the reason for the movements of all bodies and celestial bodies released by this law. According to Newton, the reason why an object thrown into the air falls to the ground is that the earth is heavier in mass than the object thrown into the air. The reason for the regular movement of celestial bodies is a state of balance depending on gravity.
Newton deeply shook the traditional philosophy’s explanation of facts and caused new perspectives to emerge in philosophy. Views that support that the universe can be known by reason, 15-17. 18-19th century philosophy next to the 18th century. It also deeply influenced the philosophy of the century. Newton’s mechanistic understanding of the universe was effective in abandoning the traditional view of the West towards nature.
Isaac Newton and the Mathematization of the World System
From Isaac Newton and Centripetal Forces to Universal Gravity