Who is James Mill?June 25, 2021
Scottish historian, economist, political theorist and philosopher.
He was born in Northwater Bridge. His father is James Mill, a shoemaker, and his mother is Isabel Fenton. He completed his education in Scotland by taking advantage of the educational opportunities provided to those who are not members of a wealthy family. With the help of Sir John Stuart M.P., he went from Montrose Academy to Edinburgh University, where he studied philosophy and Greek. He later received a priesthood training. In 1801 he started working as a journalist in London.
The son of a Forfarshire shoemaker, Mill was born in 1773. He completed his education in Scotland by taking advantage of the educational opportunities provided to those who are not members of a wealthy family. With the help of Sir John Stuart M.P., he went from Montrose Academy to Edinburgh University, where he studied philosophy and Greek. He later received a priesthood training. In 1801 he started working as a journalist in London.
He met Jeremy Bentham in 1808. Mill assisted him in publishing some of Bentham’s works, of which he was a supporter. After meeting David Ricardo in 1807, he played an important role in the writing of Ricardo’s “Principles of Political Economy and Taxation”.
Mill published his three-volume “History of British India”, which he started to write in 1806, in 1818. He was appointed to the East India House in 1819. He published his work named “Elements of Political Economy”, which he prepared during this duty, in 1828. Between 1816 and 1823, he wrote articles for the Encyclopædia Britannica on a variety of subjects, primarily government and colonies. In 1824 he supported the founding of the Westminster Review, a newspaper advocating radical and “utilitarian” ideas. Between 1824 and 1828 he took part in the founding of the institution that later became the University of London.
He was born on 6 April 1773 at Northwater Bridge in Forfar (Angus) Scotland, and died on 23 June 1836 in London.
He studied philosophy at Edinburgh University. In 1802 he went to London to practice journalism. He has written continuously in London for the Anti-Jacobin Re-view, British Revive, Eclectic Reviv and Edinburgh Reviv. He was the editor-in-chief of the journal Philanthropist. In 1808, he met Bentham, who introduced the moral theory called Utilitarianism, and, under his influence, became one of the leaders of the Utilitarian movement, which argued that an action is right if it leads to happiness, and wrong if it does not.
Also known as “philosophical fundamentalists,” this reformer group worked to expand its influence. Mill applied the principles of utilitarianism in the articles of government, education, freedom of the press, and colonies, which he wrote in the Encyclopedia Britannica between 1816 and 1823, and sought to spread his views through articles on legislation and prisons in the Wetminster Review, which he co-published with Bentham in 1823. He published Histoty of Britiih India (“History of British India”), which he had worked on for eleven years, in three volumes in 1817. This book was the first of its kind in the sense that it was a comprehensive examination of the colonization of India, taking into account social conditions and balances. It also included studies of the development of Indian civilization and the havoc that British rule had wreaked on Indian traditions.
Mill believed that a system of representation based on widespread suffrage and legislatures whose members were renewed at short intervals would automatically lead the legislature to exercise control over the executive. For Mill, majority rule is not a necessary precondition for the greatest happiness of the greatest number. A despotic ruler, if he were enlightened and benevolent, could achieve this happiness more effectively than the rule of the ignorant majority, but an institutional apparatus is needed to secure it. Mill’ii, on the other hand, emphasized the representation of individuals rather than social classes, not doubting that the “poor” would give the “classes” the right to represent themselves, and believed that by giving this “classes” the right to vote, the demands of the “poor” would be fulfilled. According to Mill’s son, John Stuart Mill, who was born in 1806 and raised by strictly applying his educational principles, his father puts too much trust in the power of reason and believes that if legislation ceases to represent a class interest, it will operate in the general interest. In his Elementi of Political Economy (“Elements of Political Economy”), which he published in “Elements of Political Economy”, “he gives a summary of the views of philosophical fundamentalists on classical economics, and especially Ricardo economics. In this book, based on Malthus’ views on population, he argued that the main problem of political reformers was population growth, assuming that capital did not increase at the same rate as population, and in line with Ricardo’s views, he argued that the “undeserved” value increase of land should be taxed.
His Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind, which he wrote to clarify the psychological basis of Utilitarianism.