Who is Jean Leon Jaures?

Who is Jean Leon Jaures?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

Auguste Marie Joseph Jean Léon Jaurès (born September 3, 1859, Castres – July 31, 1914). French socialist politician.

His family was middle class bourgeois. Like his brother Louis Jaures, who became an Admiral, he studied at Castres College on a scholarship. He was a very bright student. It caught the attention of M. Deltour, one of the inspectors general. Deltour had him enrolled in Saint-Barbe College in Paris. Jaures attended the High School Louis-le-grand there and was prepared for the Ecole Normale Superieur (higher education school). He won first place in 1878. In 1871, he placed third in the philosophy teacher examination; The second was Henri Bergson, the first was Lesbazeilles.

From 1881 to 1883, he taught philosophy at Albi High School. He lectured at the University of Toulouse from 1883 to 1885. He was also passionately interested in politics. In 1885 he was elected as a member of parliament for Tarn. In the first days, he attracted the attention of the Parliament. Although he was labeled a republican and sat on the centre-left, he mostly played with forward leftists. Thus socialism was beginning to win Jaures. He lost the election in 1889. He returned to his place at the Faculty of Letters. He first worked as a conference teacher, then became a professor. Meanwhile, he prepared two doctoral theses: one in French De la réalité du monde sensible (The Reality of the Sensible World), the other in Latin Les Orgines du socialisme chez Luther, Kant, Fichte, Hegel (The Origins of Socialism in Luther, Kant, Fiche and Hegel) . But he did not leave politics. He wrote an article for the Depeche newspaper. He was elected a member of the Toulouse City Council and was appointed Deputy Director of Public Education Department.

In 1892, after the Charmaux miners’ strike, he was elected Tarn’s reactionary MP. On top of that, the workers chose Jaures to run. He became a member of parliament on January 20, 1893. This time it was directly linked to the Socialist Party. He was re-elected in the elections held six months later. A socialist group of 50 people had gathered in the parliament. For the first time in the French Parliament, the voice of socialist teaching would be heard on every question. Between 1893 and 1898, Jules Guesde would give brilliant speeches in the legislatures, and the name Jaures would gradually become established.

Jaures was defeated in the 1898 elections. The Drefyus affair also broke out during this period. Jaures valiantly joined the fray. He published articles in the Pelite Republique (these were later collected in the famous book: les Preuves/ The Evidences). Nationalist reactionaries were threatening the Republic. Radical Rene Waldeck-Rousseau had formed the cabinet and had the socialist Alexandre Millerand in. Jaures advocated the inclusion of a socialist in a republican government. So he had to enter into great arguments with the Geustes and friends of Eduart Vailant. Extreme differences of opinion on tactical questions led to the unification of the socialists. Jaures became the tireless artist of this union. In 1905 the socialist party merged. In the 1902 general election, Jaures was re-elected. He united and revitalized the leftist community in the parliament. The community got the Combes cabinet to vote on secularism laws. However, at the 1904 Amsterdam International Convention, it was decided not to join the government. Thereupon, Jaures left the community. His next life will be mixed with the life of the party he guides. He will fight for the sake of socialism and the fight for peace is to see him as ‘the biggest of the fights’. For this reason, it will draw the anger of fierce nationalist (chauvinist) and reactionaries. They will all unite in resentment against him. In the end, provoked by some satirists (the most strenuous of them was Charles Maurras), the pistol hand of a madman named Raove Villain would knock Jaures down on July 31, 1914.

Meanwhile, Jaures was having a quick dinner with a few friends at the little Croissant coffeehouse before he went to write his article for Humanite. The neighbor was smiling, looking at the photos of the girl sitting at the table. At this time, the sound of two shots was heard…

A few hours later, mobilization was declared. Thus, the two dramas were connected in the consciousness of the people. It was as if this apostle of peace had to be driven away before he could tread as he pleased in the savannah world. That’s why Anna de Noailles, while talking about the giant who fell to the ground in front of her armies, gave a poetic form to the idea that was stuck in the minds of the working class in 1914.