Who is Johann Friedrich Herbart?

Who is Johann Friedrich Herbart?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

German philosopher and psychologist. Born May 4, 1776, died August 14, 1841.

He is regarded as the founder of pedagogy. Leaving aside his ideas about education, it is noticed that Herbart was influenced by Kant’s philosophy and Hegel. For this reason, Herbart is seen as one of the Neo-Kantian philosophers.

Johann Friedrich Herbart was a German philosopher, psychologist, and founder of pedagogy as an academic discipline. Among post-Kantian philosophers, Herbart is often remembered for being the greatest contrast to Hegel—especially regarding aesthetics.

He advocated a view of knowledge originating from Descartes’ philosophy management. He was born on May 4, 1776 in Oldenburg and died on August 14, 1841 in Göttingen. After completing his secondary education in the city where he was born, he entered the University of Jena in 1794. He became a student of Fichte. For a while he was interested in the problems of psychology and education. When he went to Bern in 1797, he met Pestalozzi, the famous educator of the age, and worked as a private trainer. During this period, he focused on education issues and organized studies containing some designs. He returned to Jena and engaged in educational studies in Halle and Bremen. He opposed Pestalozzi’s theory of education by expressing his views at the meetings he held here. He went to Göttingen in 1802 and tried to learn mathematics and develop a new educational theory on the other. He taught philosophy at the universities of Göttingen in 1805, and Königsberg in 1809. After 1831, he continued his duty as a professor at the University of Göttingen until his death.

Although Herbart made interesting studies in the fields of philosophy, metaphysics, logic and aesthetics for his time, he focused on educational problems for a while, and displayed his thoughts, which included some innovations in this field, in his work Allgemeine Pâdagogik (“General Educational Science”), which he published in 1806. After working at Königsberg University, his studies turned to the problems of logic and metaphysics. In this orientation, he benefited from Kant’s theory of knowledge and argued that the experimental data, which is the first source of information, should be formatted by being controlled by reason. However, in this regard, he opposes Kant’s criticism of reason and considers the scientific doubt and innate concepts (idea innata) developed by Descartes as the basis of philosophy. According to Herbart, knowledge begins with experiment and is limited by experiment. Knowledge must be purified according to the principles of reason and take its definite form. This necessity is not based on the concepts that Kant put forward as a result of criticism, but on the concepts that are first met with suspicion and then determined to be certain.

– What is the connection between doubt and knowledge?

– Concept of philosophy of art and elements of aesthetics

– What is the unchanging “I”?

Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Year 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Year 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM)