Who is Johann Gregor Mendel?

Who is Johann Gregor Mendel?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

Johann Gregor Mendel was born July 22, 1822 in Heinzendorf (present-day Czech Republic), died January 6, 1884 in Brünn (present-day Czech Republic); Austrian botanist and priest, founder of genetics.

The pioneer of the science of heredity, the botanist, in his studies on plants, found that the characteristics of a species are passed on to the next generations by inheritance. After the principles put forward by Mendel were confirmed by experiments carried out at the beginning of the 20th century, the validity of the theory of inheritance for all living things was determined, and it became one of the basic principles of biology.

Mendel, who started gardening at an early age, continued his life as a clergyman in Moravia after his university education. In the meantime, he made some studies on plants that did not have much success.

Returning to Brünn in 1854, he began teaching at a technical high school. He had taken the teaching exams before, but failed. At the time Darwin’s theory of natural selection was spreading in the middle of the 19th century, the problem of how the characteristics of a living species could be transmitted to its descendants arose with new intensity.

Biological scientists, especially botanists, could not shed light on this problem despite their efforts. Mendel, who would later be accepted as the father of genetics, started experiments on the same problem in 1858 and his research could only be concluded 8 years later. His success was due to his method, which was convenient to the subject he studied. On the one hand, Mendel knew how to distinguish plant varieties (giant or dwarf, flat or wrinkled peas) in which the differences were few and highly evident, on the other hand, he was able to adopt the statistical method at a time when statistics was not yet an established science in investigating numerical relationships according to the transmitted characteristics.

In his experiments with peas, he succeeded in obtaining pure strains for generations that carried one of the opposite characteristics of the plant, such as being tall or dwarf, colored or colorless flowers and leaf axils, yellow or green seeds, smooth or wrinkled. Then he crossed them among themselves. He suggested that these conspicuously distinct traits arose in pure lineages and hybrid progeny through basic units of heredity, and that there was a pair of genes for each trait.

Mendel evaluated all this with simple statistics. The basic principle of these Mendelian laws is that the reproductive cells of hybrid progeny have hereditary units, half from the mother and half from the father.

When a scientist is mentioned, a type with glasses and a white coat, who works in his laboratory, comes to life. However, the scientist is actually a consciousness that constantly researches in accordance with the conditions in which it is found, and that contains a desire for research that can never be overcome.

As long as this consciousness hears the voice coming from its essence, it will seek, seek, seek. When the desire for research ends, worldly ambitions, anxieties and even arrogance take its place, then the research ends, then the love of science also ends and turns into ready and non-progressing knowledge. That moment is the loss of science, and the cry of stagnation, ignorance and blindness. In this respect, we present the life of Gregor Mendel, the Founder of Genetic Science, in order to recognize these “Scientists”, who are especially common in countries that have not completed their development, and to see the differences between him and the “Scientist”.

Gregor Mendel was born to a poor peasant in Czechoslovakia, which was part of the Austrian empire. Since the feudal system was still running in the countryside, there was no other option for the poor and landless peasants but to work as farmhands. Education, which could be the only salvation option, was limited to primary school only, and furthermore it was unimaginable for a peasant as he was a mercenary.

Living under these conditions, Gregor’s most probable future could not go beyond being a farmer. However, Gregor’s extraordinary talent in primary school and with the insistence of his teachers, his family supports his secondary education. Discovering his interest in botany in middle school, Mendel begins to look for a place where he can continue his studies on this subject. His sister’s dowry money was too insufficient to cover it, and as there was no scholarship opportunity, he had only one chance; enter the monastery…

He chose the Brünn Abbey, famous for its botanical museum, horticultural plants and extensive library. Mendel, who received the title of priest at the age of 25 from here, now had only one goal, to enter a secondary school as a teacher where he could find wider research opportunities. …

The transmission of traits in living things from generation to generation had intrigued Mendel for a long time. Everyone knew that the characteristics of a newborn baby depend on the characteristics he received from his mother and father, but a mathematical explanation of this transmission could not be explained. Mendel’s bush on peas