Who is Johann Kaspar Schmidt (Max Stirner)?June 25, 2021
German philosopher and theorist.
Born in Bayreuth on October 25, 1806, Max Stirner (Johann Caspar Schmidt) was the only child of a flute-maker father and a mentally ill mother. In middle and high school, Johann Caspar became the diligent student of his teacher, the Hegelian Georg Andreas Gabler. After graduating from high school, he went to Berlin and studied under Hegel (1826-1828). He left Berlin in 1828 and went to Erlangen, where he studied philosophy for at least one semester and then took a break from his education to travel around Germany for four years.
He returned to Berlin in 1832 and finished his studies in Schulgesetze (School Laws) two years later. Between 1839 and 1844 she worked as a teacher in a private girls’ school. Teaching work pleases both the school administration and the students. He married Marie Daehnhardt in 1843. Stirner died in Berlin on June 25, 1856.
Between 1842 and 1844 Stirner wrote many interesting (literary, artistic, religious education, etc.) articles in various daily newspapers. As an active member of the Free Club, he strongly criticizes the Prussian government and also publishes articles in favor of the establishment of autonomous associations aimed at the overthrow of this government. In Marx’s Rheinische Zeitung, he published his critique of education and humanism, Das unwahre Prinzip unserer Erziehung oder Humanismus und Realismus (1842). In autumn 1844, his work Der Einzige und sein Eigentum (The Unique and Self) was published. Feuerbach, B. Bauer, Stirner responds to criticism by Hess in his article Rezensenten Stirners in 1845.
Famous philosophers who talk about Max Stirner with admiration in their private lives either never mention him in their works or ignore him with a few side sentences. However, these “subordinate clauses” draw attention with their central importance in terms of their content. It would be helpful to provide a few examples to point once again to Stirner’s strange reception history.
Karl Marx finds himself in a strange position when he is influenced by Stirner’s work. He leaves Feuerbach and refuses to approach Stirner, but responds to the BvM with an Anti-Stirner (“German Ideology”), which he hastily answered verbatim with vengeance. (K. Marx/F.Engels – Werke, Band 3, Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1983). This work, which is polemical from beginning to end and written with the skills of an acrobat, shows that Marx was going through a philosophical crisis and as a result, his hatred for Stirner. After all, in his critique of Stirner, Marx “risks his own death”, in Sloterdijk’s words, to destroy Stirner. Marx’s Anti-Stirner is the clearest proof of Marx’s philosophical crisis, which faltered under Stirner’s influence. Nietzsche will experience a similar crisis later.
“It is a unique word, and under a word there must be something to think about, a word must contain thought. Whereas the only word is a thoughtless word, without thought.”
Friedrich Engels praises Stirner in his letter, conveying to Marx his first impressions of Stirner’s work The Unique and the Self. (Engels an Marx in Paris, 19. November 1844. (MEW 27, 11). See Max-Stirner-Archiv, Leipzig). However, right after the reply he received from Marx, he corrected his view and said that he was no longer under Stirner’s influence and agreed with Marx. (Engels an Marx in Paris. Bartender, 20. Januar 1845. (MEW 27, 14). See Max-Stirner-Archiv, Leipzig).
Arnold Ruge praises Stirner in several of his letters.
Edmund Husserl does not mention Stirner in any of his works, but in a remote corner he calls the Unique and Self a “evil power”. (B.A. Laska: Ein dauerhafter Dissident, p. 77, LSR-Verlag 1996). Martin Heidegger says he never read Stirner. (B.A. Laska: Ein dauerhafter Dissident, p. 77, LSR-Verlag 1996). “Stirner is the only philosopher who gets a bean out of his mouth,” Theodor W. Adorno said in a conversation. (Helms, Hans G.: Die Ideologie der anonymen Gesellschaft, p.200 DuMont Verlag 1966). Also, encouraging a young writer (H.G. Helms) to write a new Anti-Stirner, Adorno does not mention Stirner in his own works. Carl Schmitt records the following sentence in his diary in prison: “In this case, the only person visiting me in my cell is Max.” (B.A. Laska: Ein dauerhafter Dissident, p. 76, LSR-Verlag 1996). It is within the scope of almost everyone who hears Stirner’s name that Stirner is referred to as anarchist, nihilist, solipsist, fascist, individualist, selfish, and everything is mine. However: Stirner is the scapegoat for philosophy, just as every community should have a scapegoat. So he was casually called an anarchist, nihilist, devil, etc. it is legitimate.
He was an individualist anarchist who lived from 1806 to 1856. Egoists defend their unity, which consists of individuals who treat each other with respect because their interests are interconnected.
Stirner philosophy; It is the philosophy of the “unique self”, which closely resembles Nietzsche’s “superhuman” prototype. According to Stirner, both God and the state work only for their own benefit. Therefore, it is also possible for a person to be dependent only on his own interests and depend on no one.