Who is Karl von Linne (Carl Linnaeus)?June 25, 2021
Carl Linnaeus (later Carl von Linné, Carolus Linnaeus in Latin scripts) Born 23 May 1707 in Råshult (Stenbrohult, Southern Sweden), died 10 January 1778 in Uppsala; Swedish biologist, physician and physicist.
Linnaeus introduced the basis of classification in biology and botany and showed all living things in a table. This method of his is still used today.
He started Lund University in 1727. In 1735 he went to the Netherlands. He received the title of medical doctor there and stayed for three years. In his work called Genera Plantarum (Plant Species) published in 1737, he described plants at the genus level according to their flower structures. He later became a marine physicist in Stockholm. He accepted the chair of medicine at Uppsala in 1741 and became a professor the following year. Linnaeus applied the binary naming system to some 6,000 plant species in his book Species Plantarum, compiled in 1753. In 1757 he was given the privilege of nobility and became known as Carl von Linné.
Linnaeus initiated the binary naming of plants and animals. In this system, a special second name comes after a Latin or Greek name. With his classification for plants, some plants that could not be described until that day could be easily described. He grouped plants and animals according to the similarity of their internal structures. He initiated taxonomy (naming) which is still partly used in botany and zoology today.
Apart from these, Linnaeus also has studies on drugs, Swedish ethnology and geography. He traveled to the undeveloped areas of Sweden and described what he saw.
Linnaeus suggested and insisted on naming each species with a unit consisting of two Latin words. The first word of this two-word structure is the name of the genus to which that life form belongs. The second word is an independent word that is used to indicate different species of that genus and is chosen depending on the general characteristics of the species. This approach formed the basis for the two-word nomenclature used now. These two-word names are the scientific names of the species or the systematic names of the species. Three-word nomenclature is used to further facilitate the distinction of species. For the correct spelling of scientific names; Genus names should start with a capital letter, species names should start with a lower case letter, and the author’s name and publication note should be added.
Before Linnaeus, a nomenclature was used, sometimes containing a descriptive adjective, sometimes consisting of many different words. Scientists could use different names for the same species. This naming has caused a lot of confusion in the scientific world. Linnaeus’ system brought these different nomenclatures to plant and animal species into a standard and easy-to-understand form. Linnaeus further developed his system by adding genus, order, class groups, and he passed away.
Linnaeus described four different races of man, distinguished by skin color. Biologists who followed him also studied racial groups based on physical characteristics. However, it later became clear that such classifications were not scientific and precise.