Who is Lucien Levy-Bruhl?

Who is Lucien Levy-Bruhl?

June 25, 2021 Off By Felso

Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (born April 19, 1857, Paris – died March 13, 1939, Paris, France) was a French philosopher, sociologist.

His psychological researches on primitive peoples brought a new approach to anthropology in the study of social thought systems and the irrational elements contained in primitive religions and mythology.

The work of many researchers, anthropologists and ethnologists on people living tens of thousands of kilometers apart on five continents is a direct source of inspiration for Lucien Lévy-Bruhl. Lévy-Bruhl has revealed his immense knowledge in his field in his different works.

Looking at the works of Lévy-Bruhl and the texts of anthropologists such as M. Mauss, B. Malinowsky, G. Frazer, Louis Dumont, Lévy-Strauss, humanity’s enormous technological, democratic, scientific, etc. Despite their development, in many respects there are similarities with the mental universe of primitive society. Lévy-Bruhl, whose main area of ​​expertise is philosophy and who has written some of the most important texts on the mental/intellectual structure of primitive societies, also discussed whether the concept of soul exists in primitive societies. He tried to reveal hundreds of details of how primitive people thought and lived.

Bruhl became a doctor of literature in 1885. He became a lecturer at the Sorbonne in 1895, a lecturer in the history of modern philosophy in 1902, an assistant professor in 1905, and a principal professor in 1908. After philosophical studies such as “L’Idée de Responsabilité” (The Idea of ​​Responsibility, 1885), he published “La Morale et la Science des Moeurs” (The Science of Morals, 1903).

In this work, he critiqued theoretical morality and proposed a sociological relativity to theoretical morality. After examining the moral understanding, brain activities and religious life of primitive communities; He argued that the foundation of a science of morals should be laid. Léviy-Bruhl argued that rational thought and objectivity stand in opposition to pre-rational thought and mysticism. These views have sparked criticism.

In 1949, in his posthumous work “Cahiers” (Notebooks), he took a more lenient stance, developing the details of his views. Mystical thought exists in all thought systems; He said it was more clearly seen in primitive societies, and therefore easier to observe.