Who is Max Born?June 25, 2021
Max Born (December 11, 1882 to January 5, 1970) was a German mathematician and physicist who was influential in the development of quantum mechanics.
He also contributed to solid state physics and optics and supervised the work of important physicists in the 1920s-30s. Born received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 for his work “Researching the basis of Quantum Mechanics, especially on the statistical interpretation of the wave function”.
German mathematician and physicist Max Born; He was born in Breslau on December 11, 1882, as one of the two children of Professor Gustav Born, an anatomist and embryologist, and Margarethe Born (Kaufmann), a member of a Silesian manufacturer family. After studying at König Wilhelm’s Gymnasium in Breslau (a post-secondary school in Germany that prepares students for university), he continued his education at the universities of Breslau, Heidelberg, Zurich and Göttingen. He met in Breslau with matrix calculus, which would later be influential in his work. He met advanced mathematics thanks to the elliptic functions course he took from Hurwitz at the University of Zürich.
In the second stage of his education, he mainly studied mathematics. Meanwhile, the brilliant mathematicians of the period (Klein, Hilbert, Minkowski, Runge) whom he met greatly contributed to Born’s mathematical knowledge and skills. At the same time, he studied astronomy from Schwarzschild and physics from Voigt. He was awarded the Göttingen Faculty of Philosophy Award for his work called “The Stability of Elastic Lines”. After graduating with the title of doctorate from the University of Göttingen in 1907 with the same study, he went to Cambridge for a short time to work with Larmor and J.J Thomson. Between 1908 and 1909, when he returned to Breslau, he worked with Lummer and Prinsheimle on the theory of relativity. During this time he was appointed associate professor of physics at the University of Göttingen. Born, who started to teach at the University of Berlin upon the call of Max Planck in 1914, even though this assignment was short-lived due to the First World War, he established a lifelong friendship between Einstein and Born.
After working as a professor at Frankfurt University between 1919-1921, he assumed the directorship of the Institute of Physics with the call from the University of Göttingen. Born, who became the head of the theoretical physics department of the Institute and left the experimental physics department to James Frank; He started working on quantum theory with his assistants Heisenberg, Fermi and Pauli. II. In this decade leading up to World War II, he led the training of many physicists and made the Institute the center of theoretical and experimental physics.
Like many scientists, Max Born was dismissed from his post when Hitler came to power. In 1933, he started his 2-year job at Cambridge. Between 1935-36 he spent six months at the Indian Institute in Bangalore, where he studied with Sir Raman. Born, who also worked on the philosophy of physics, began working as Tait professor of natural philosophy at Edinburgh University, where he would serve from 1936 to 1953. The University has also provided him with the convenience of visiting universities in many countries and presenting his studies for 17 years.
When he retired in 1953 and returned to his country to settle in Bad Pyrmont, he shared the 1954 Nobel Prize in Physics with W. Bothe for his research in quantum mechanics, but this award, as it sometimes was, was actually an expression of respect for much earlier work. This scientist, who had important studies in many branches of physics such as relativity, atomic and solid-state physics, matrix mechanics, quantum mechanics, optics and kinetic theory of fluids, passed away on January 5, 1970 in Göttingen.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook