Who is Nasiruddin Tusi?June 26, 2021
Islamic philosopher. The said period was a dark period on the one hand, and a period when important schools of thought were established and Islamic scientific institutions were opened in Baghdad, on the other hand, due to the Mongol invasion. Nasiruddin Tusi grew up in this period and became a well-known sage of the Shiite world.
Nasîrüddin Tûsî became interested in theology, philosophy and mathematics from an early age under the influence of his father and uncle. At a certain stage of his philosophical development, he read Ibn Sina’s Isharat and worked with this text for many years. After these efforts, he wrote Şerh-i İşârât, which is considered one of his most important works.
He learned mathematics from Kemalûddin Hâsip and hadiths from Burhanüddin Hamedanî. He was interested in many branches of knowledge and tried to deepen it; He trained well-known scholars (such as Allama Hillî, Kutbüddin Şirvanî). He took part in the assembly of Nasîrüddin Ebu’l-Feth b. After writing a eulogy praising the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutasim, they fell apart and he was exiled.
He hid in the fortress of Alamut through Hassan Sabah’s seventh successor, Khudavend Alauddin. Then, until 1247, he was held as a semi-prisoner in Maimun Daye fortress. He was released when the Mongols captured the castles. He served as the adviser of the Mongol ruler Hulagu and received support from him in all his scientific and philosophical studies. He founded the famous Marâga Observatory at this time, and this institution took its place as one of the largest Islamic scientific institutions. A large library was also established next to the observatory, where four hundred thousand books are thought to have been collected. On the one hand, Hulagü khan burned down Baghdad and on the other hand, supported the re-establishment of scientific institutions there. He was supported by the later ruler Abaka Khan and produced important works thanks to this support in his old age.
Nasîrüddin Tûsî did not reveal a new school of philosophy in Islamic philosophy, but he still took a place as a sage whose philosophical studies were influential with their depth and scope. It can be said that he followed the path of the peripatetic philosophers rather, he tried to adapt their philosophical theses to the principles of Shiism. He was the first person to write a systematic ethics book in the Islamic world. In his system, he tried to combine Aristotle’s moral principles with Ghazali’s mystical and mystical moral ideas. He was in search of some kind of synthesis. A part of this moral philosophy is his thoughts on education. According to him, a suitable name should be given to the child from birth (because names affect fate), he should have a good wet nurse, and the child should be protected from environments where he/she will develop bad habits. In this process, it is necessary to teach him to use his mind and to love the virtues obtained through reason. Mastery of one’s desires and self-restraint need to be taught as a virtue. After that, the child should be directed and encouraged to whatever art or interest he is capable of.