Who is Nicolaus Copernicus?June 26, 2021
Mikolaj Copernicus (Nicolaus Copernicus), (b.1473 – d. 1543). Polish astronomer.
Born in Torun (Poland) on February 19, 1473, Copernicus completed his education in mathematics and astronomy by continuing to school in Kraków in 1491. Returning home in 1494, Copernicus went to Italy for religious education under the influence of his uncle, who was the archbishop. There he studied with the astronomer Domenico Noworra (1454-1504). He returned to his hometown in 1497 and took office in the church, but this did not last long. While attending the Faculty of Law in 1501, he returned to Italy to start the Faculty of Medicine. Here he continued his studies.
Born into a merchant family, Copernicus was a professor of mathematics in Italy and a statesman in Poland (Figure 3.6). He published his work “On the Rotations of the Celestial Spheres”, in which he claimed that the planets revolved around the sun, in the last years of his life because he was afraid of the church.
Copernicus’ theory, which proposes a new universe system, is based on the following basic principles: The planets revolve around the sun, not the earth, contrary to popular belief. The world is not static in itself, even the world has turns. The Earth rotates on its axis in one day and around the Sun in one year. Until this period, the universe system put forward by Ptolemy (Ptolemy) under the influence of Aristotle was accepted. According to this system, the universe consisted of two parts, the moon and the moon, and their laws were seen differently. The Earth is stationary at the center and other planets, stars and the Sun; It would revolve around the world. With this universe system, practical answers were given to the problems related to the day and night cycle, the movements of the stars and the effects of similar situations on the world.
Copernicus, who was the first to oppose this dual universe understanding and was influenced by the 12th century Islamic philosopher Ibn Bajce, argued that the physical properties of celestial bodies and objects on earth are the same. The system put forward by Copernicus provided the opportunity to explain a large number of observation data in a single reason with minimal assumptions in contrast to the Ptolemy system. Copernicus’ heliocentric view of the universe is primarily in the 15-17th century in terms of being effective in the transition from the dualist universe understanding to the monist universe understanding. century philosophy.
– The life and works of Copernicus
– What is the Copernican principle?
– Copernicus and the Renaissance
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook