Who is Niels Bohr?June 26, 2021
Niels Henrik David Bohr, whose full name is Niels Henrik David Bohr, was a Danish physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922 for his work helping to understand atomic structures and quantum theory.
Niels Henrik David Bohr was born on October 7, 1885 in Copenhagen, Denmark. His father was a famous professor of medicine at the University of Copenhagen, and his mother was the daughter of a wealthy banker. Niels and his brother, Harald, two years younger, who later became a famous mathematician, graduated from Copenhagen University with outstanding honors. At the same time, they both played for the Denmark national football team.
After Niels Bohr received his doctorate in 1910 with his thesis on the electron theory of metals, he went to Cambridge University with a scholarship from Carlsberg breweries to J.J. Thompson’s lab. After a few months there, he joined Ernest Rutherford at the University of Manchester. After returning to Denmark in 1912, he took an important step in quantum physics by constructing the model of the atom known by his name. He pondered what the relationship between quantum physics and classical physics would be. He returned to Copenhagen University in 1916 as a professor of physics.
For the first time in determining the atomic structure of quantum theory, he created the atomic model, which is named after him. He played a leading role in the development of quantum physics for nearly 50 years. He also developed the “liquid droplet model” of the atomic nucleus. Bohr, who was appointed as the head of the Copenhagen Institute of Theoretical Physics, received the Nobel Prize in 1922 for his work on the structure of atoms and the radiation emitted from them. Bohr’s interpretation of quantum mechanics (the Copenhagen interpretation) was found around this time. Bohr remained head of his institute until Denmark was occupied by the Germans in World War II.
He fled to Sweden in 1943, just before the invasion, and went to the USA from there. Participated in the Atomic bomb project at Alamos (Manhattan Project) in Los Alamos, New Mexico, contributed to the development of the atomic bomb. However, as soon as the war was over, he returned to Denmark and worked to prevent the use and spread of the atomic bomb.
In the millennium voting held in late 1999 with 100 prominent physicists, Niels Bohr was ranked 4th among the best physicists of all time, after Einstein Newton and Maxwell.
Bohr developed the Bohr Model of the Atom, in which he stated that the energy levels of electrons are intermittent and that they rotate in discontinuous fields of orbits around the nucleus ‘like the motion of planets around the Sun, except when they can move from one energy level (orbit) to another. Although Bohr’s model of the atom has been replaced by other models, the basic principles of this model still apply. Bohr explains the principle of complementarity: elements can be separated and evaluated in terms of their contradictory properties, such as particles behaving like waves or a stream. The concept of complementarity has been a dominant concept in Bohr’s thoughts on both science and philosophy.
Niels Bohr founded the Institute for Theoretical Physics, now known as the Niels Bohr Institute, at the University of Copenhagen in 1920. Bohr taught and worked with many scientists, including Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy and Werner Heisenberg. Bohr predicted the presence of a zirconium-like element named hafnium, the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was newly discovered. This element was later given the name Bohrium.
During the 1930s, Bohr helped refugees fleeing Nazism. After the German occupation of Denmark, he had a meeting with Heisenberg, who was the head of the German nuclear power project. In September 1943, Bohr was about to be captured by the Germans and fled to Switzerland. From Switzerland, the British Tube Regiments flew to Britain, where he participated in the nuclear weapons project and was a member of the British delegation for the Manhattan Project. After the war, Bohr made a call for international cooperation on nuclear power. He co-founded CERN and the Danish Atomic Energy Commission Risø Research Establishment, and in 1957 became the first president of the Scandinavian Institute for Theoretical Physics.
Bohr read Soren Kierkegaard, one of the 19th century Danish Christian existential philosophers. Richard Rhodes stated in “The Making of the Atomic Bomb” that Bohr was influenced by Kierkegaard through Hoffding. The disagreement between Bohr and Kiekegaard stemmed mostly from Bohr’s atheism. In 1909, Bohr sent his brother Kierkegaard’s “Steps of the Life Path” as a gift. In a sealed envelope, Bohr said, “This is all I have to send home, but I don’t think it’s easy to find anything better than that. In fact, it’s one of the nicest things I’ve ever read in my life.” He used his expressions. Bohr liked Kierkegaard’s language and literary style, but had some disagreements with Kierkegaard’s philosophy. There was some controversy over Kierkegaard’s influence on Bohr in philosophy and science. David Favrholdt