Who is Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky?June 26, 2021
Russian revolutionary democrat, materialist philosopher, critic and socialist. Considered by some to be a utopian (utopian) socialist. He was the leader of the revolutionary democratic movement in the 1860s. Lenin influenced important names such as Emma Goldman.
He was born in Saratov in 1828, the son of a poor priest. He remained here until 1846. In 1850 St. After graduating from St. Petersburg University, he taught at a high school (gymnasium) in Saratov. From 1853 to 1862 St. Petersburg, he was the editor-in-chief of Sovremennik (Contemporary). He was arrested and imprisoned in 1862. How to do while in prison He wrote his famous novel. It can be said that the novel, which would later inspire many Russian revolutionaries, bears the influence of names such as Owen, Fourier and Godwin in terms of the ideas it contains.
In 1862, a ‘civil execution’ (mockery) sentence was issued, followed by criminal slavery and then exile to Siberia. He died on October 17, 1889, at the age of 61.
Chernichevsky is the founder of Russian populism, Narodism. He invited the public to work for the overthrow of the autocracy with a revolution and the creation of a socialist society. His idea was to create a socialism based on the old peasant commune. Herzen, Belinsky, and Feuerbach greatly influenced their ideas. He was a materialist in the philosophical sense.
Karl Marx describes Chernyshevsky as “the great Russian researcher and critic who skillfully exposed the bankruptcy of bourgeois economics”. However, Chernyshevsky was not a Marxist, rather he was ignorant of Marxist literature.
Lenin, who greatly admired Chernyshevsky, explains his role in the development of revolutionary thought and movement in Russia as follows; “… Chernyshevsky, who developed Narodnik views after Herzen, made a great leap in comparison with Herzen. Chernyshevsky was a much more consistent and militant democrat, his writings inspired the spirit of class struggle. He resolutely pursued the path of exposing the hypocrisy of liberalism… Despite his utopian socialist views, he was a remarkably profound critic of capitalism.” (From the History of the Workers’ Press in Russia)