Who is Philip Bard?June 26, 2021
Philip Bard was born in California in 1898. He completed his education at Princeton and Harvard Universities. He chaired the American Physiological Society from 1941-1946.
Bard did important work on the physiology of the central nervous system. His work was mostly concerned with the functions of the nervous system, emotional excitement, intracranial system, and brainstem involvement due to motion sickness. He made important contributions to the concept of the “neural center”, which was explained by the study of neural functions.
Philip Bard was a PhD student of the famous physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon, known for his research on homeostasis. Together, they developed a model of emotion, the Cannon-Bard Theory, and studied the role of the brain in generating physiological feelings and responses.
A key component of Cannon-Bard’s theory of emotion is that when thalamic discharge occurs, bodily changes occur almost simultaneously with the emotional experience. Bodily changes and emotional experiences occur separately and independently. Physiological arousal does not have to precede emotional expression or experience. The theory proposes that the thalamic region is the brain region responsible for emotional responses to stimuli. Cannon-Bard’s theory of emotion was formulated as an alternative to the James-Lange theory.
Along with the Cannon-Bard theory, Bard also worked on issues such as the vestibular system and motion sickness. The most important contributions of his work, especially the concept of the neural center, were made in the field of biological effects of psychology. His explanations of neural functions changed many important ideas in biological psychology.
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Ömer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education Philosophy Textbook; Translation: Tuba Yildirim