Who is Phrrhon (Pirron, Piron)?June 26, 2021
Pyrrhon of Elea (365-275 BC) is the founder of skepticism. Like Socrates, the room never wrote. We know his thoughts through his students. Physician Sextus Empiricus summarized skeptical teachings in Pyrrhonic descriptions. (3rd century BC)
According to Pirrhon, everything in the universe is the same. There is nothing different. The universe can neither be comprehended by thought nor be judged on. We have no minutes, we cannot turn to any direction. Since we cannot know the truth directly, we should avoid judgments on truth.
Skepticism also has moral consequences: since there is nothing different in the world, we must also destroy our feelings and desires. We must reach the apathy of death into apathy. We must also eliminate fictional thinking and the act of drawing conclusions. That’s why Pirrhon never wrote.
Who is Pyron?
B.C. The founder of skepticism, who lived between 365-275 BC, is a famous Greek thinker. He is the founder of the Skepticism (Septicism) movement, also called Pyrrhonism. Pyrrhon, a student of Anaxarkhos of Abdera, taught at Elis. Believing that equally valid arguments can be made for and against a proposition, he argued that seeking the truth is a futile effort. He joined Alexander the Great’s expedition to India, and there he observed the joy of the poor in their indifference to parallels.
He advocated for people to judge the reliability of their sense perceptions (that is, to apply the epoch) and to live in accordance with reality as it appears. Pyrrhon neither investigated existence, nor made a choice by saying “this is good, this is bad”, nor did he make a judgment. He neither expected nor hoped for anything, nor believed anything. These attitudes seen in septic philosophers can be fully described as dogmatic features.
Pyrrhonism was influential in the Middle and New Academia in Athens. Also, M.S. III. It significantly influenced philosophical thought in 17th century Europe with the republishing of the works of Sextos Empeirikos, who systematized Greek skepticism in the 17th century. In addition, Pyrrhon’s views are also found in the poems of Timon of Phleius, who was his student.
Phyrrhon, who argues that it is impossible for man to reach knowledge, surpass appearances and reach reality, said that there is equally strong evidence for and against every view, therefore the best thing to do is not to lean to any side, to confess ignorance, to say nothing, to suspend judgment. he said.
Pyrrhon is the first thinker who put forward doubt as a system. Septic philosophy was also called “Pyrrhonism” as a tribute to the name of this first true septic. Pyrrhon starts from the following thought: On every issue, two views can be put forward, one diametrically opposed to the other.
For example, it can be argued that the universe is entirely material, or that it consists of ideal elements. It is not possible to prove which of these two defenses, one opposed to the other, is actually correct. Also, both the existence and non-existence of gods can be argued. We do not know which of these judgments is correct. In that case, the best behavior is to “refrain from making any judgments” on a subject. We only know with more or less probability what will happen in the near future. This is enough for practical life. There is no reliability or certainty about knowing anything else. So the best thing to do is to avoid making a judgment.
For example, everyone should refrain from making any judgments about the universe. Since the Pyrrhon, it has been called “epohe”, to avoid judgment, to avoid reflection.
The more fully the “epohe” is applied, the further away the restlessness is and the closer the “peace of mind” is. The superior man is the one who avoids all kinds of judgments about what he does not know. Epohe also means being prepared for all kinds of things, whatever destiny has prepared.
The superior man knows that everything is possible, nothing is certain. The person who makes this understanding his guide adopts all the occurrences of his luck as they are, and thus attains a great peace of mind. Nothing in the world shakes a person who uses Epohe, because he is ready and willing to do anything.
Like Democritus, Pyrrhon also finds happiness in a life of peace and joy of heart (euthymia). To achieve this, it is necessary to rely on philosophy. The duty of philosophy is to recognize the truth and the truth in order to organize life according to its ultimate goal, happiness. This is how Pyrrhon deals with the problem of knowledge. According to him, the first thing to do is to examine what this factor—knowledge—that will lead to the highest goal of life is and whether it is in a position to do the job.
Knowledge is not in a position to do this, says Pyrrhon, because for every assertion, two opposite arguments and equal in strength can be put forward; therefore we cannot say anything definite about anything; What it will do: avoid all judgment (epokhe). And also: get the senses,