Who is Plato (Plato)?

Who is Plato (Plato)?

June 26, 2021 Off By Felso

Plato (Plato) BC 427 to BC He is an important Ancient Greek philosopher who lived between 347 BC. Plato, whose real name is Aristocles, was called and known by the nickname “plato”, which means broad-chested in Greek, due to his broad shoulders and athletic structure. Plato, from the age of twenty until his death, was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, one of the most important philosophers in the history of philosophy.

In ancient Greek philosophy, pre-Socratic philosophers (first philosophers or natural philosophers) produced rather materialist views. The materialistic teaching of ancient philosophy reached its highest level with the atomist Democritus, whereas the idealist (reflective) philosophy reached its peak with Plato.

Plato greatly benefited from being educated as an artist and especially as a man of letters, and by decorating his intellectual products with a very skillful and poetic expression, he succeeded in influencing people for centuries.

Plato is undoubtedly one of the greatest thinkers in the history of philosophy. He left behind a great intellectual legacy, the influence of which has lasted for centuries and has reached the present day, and marked the beginning of the systematic era of the history of philosophy. He is the first important philosopher who also played a role in the shaping of Western philosophy. He is the founder of the school of philosophy called “Academy” in Athens. Plato’s philosophical views are still debated.

Plato’s School of Philosophy: Akademia

Plato’s views had a profound impact on Islamic and Christian philosophy. It caused the Neoplatonism movement in the Islamic thought world. Translations from Ancient Greek were made in Western Europe after the Renaissance.

According to Alfred North Whitehead, one of the modern philosophers, all western philosophy after Plato is nothing but footnotes to his work.

PLATO’S YOUTH YEARS

Plato BC. Since he was born in 427, it means that the year of his birth coincides with the Peloponnesian Wars, which lasted for almost thirty years (431-404 BC) between Athens and Isparta.

Considering the social level of the family to which Plato belongs, the education and training he received, the most natural profession for him should be politics. However, he was not enthusiastic about political life. The reason for this is that his youth years were spent in war and he did not like the democracy method. At that time, Athens was ruled by a People’s Assembly, which was easily turned into a toy by master demagogues. Plato has always opposed such a government.

He expressed in his works that the famous statesmen of Athens gave importance to external ostentatiousness and pomp and completely forgot the moral values ​​of the people. Athens was defeated at the end of the Peloponnesian Wars, and an aristocratic government under the protection of Isparta took power.

It is very natural that Plato helped the aristocratic power, whose rulers included his close relatives. However, Plato concluded that this administration was not different from democratic administration due to its unjust and oppressive policy. Therefore, he returned to his private life again.

As a matter of fact, this administration was overthrown after a short time. It was replaced by a moderate democratic method. Plato wanted to be involved in political activities in this new period as well, but this time he had to get involved in Socrates’ execution.

Bust of Plato in the Vatican Museum.

It was impossible for Plato to cooperate with a government that executed his teacher Socrates. After this event, Plato completely abandoned his enthusiasm for political activity. Natural political life continued to be his area of ​​interest. However, this interest was limited only to the theoretical field. Although Plato determined an ideal state plan, he never believed that this ideal state could be implemented in his own country. On the other hand, he did not find it right to continue the fight against the city where he was born and raised.

On the one hand, Plato could not find a suitable environment to enter politics, on the other hand, he did not want to be a party to a fight in this field, so he preferred a life away from active politics in Athens. On the other hand, his close friendship with Dion in Syracuse enabled him to play an effective political role there. However, Plato was not successful in his political attempts in Syracuse.

The king arrested him for acting like a dangerous innovator and expelled him from his country. In the city of Aigina, which he stopped on the way back to Athens, he was taken prisoner and sold as a slave because Aigina and Athens were at war. By good coincidence, a philosopher from Cyrene bought him and had him return to Athens.

Later, Plato wanted to give back the money he paid to the philosopher of Cyrene when he bought him, but he did not get this money back. Plato also founded his famous “Academy” with this irrevocable money.

Later, Plato made two more trips to Syracus in the hope of being able to participate in political activities, but these two trips were not enough to realize his hope and he had to leave Syracus again. Finally a day