Who is Roger Bacon (Rogerus Baco)?June 26, 2021
Roger Bacon (Rogerus Baco) (1220 – 1292) English scientist and philosopher.
Bacon, who strove towards “experimental science,” is regarded as a historically premature representative of the experimental approach of contemporary science. Bacon, dwelling on the causes of man’s ignorance, said that relying on authority, the influence of tradition, prejudices and so-called wisdom that hides one’s ignorance prevent man from reaching the truth.
Stating that the duty of philosophy is to lead people to the knowledge of God and to put them at his service, Bacon gave special importance to mathematics and accepted it as the key to all sciences. Bacon, who made intense criticisms of the science and morality of his time, made important contributions to the scientific method, which he said consisted of induction and deduction.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus Baco) can be considered a mixture of medieval and modern scholars. A Franciscan monk and educated at Oxford and Paris, Bacon devoted himself particularly to the study of mathematics (this branch is considered the foundation of all sciences and includes arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music) and the physical sciences—including perspective, alchemy, agriculture. , medicine, astrology and magic. In addition, he is interested in Greek, Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic (Chaldean) languages. He considers them inseparable from theology and philosophy. He defines metaphysics as the science of first cause. Bacon collected his thoughts in an encyclopedic work, Opus Majus.
Bacon says that the two methods of knowledge are evidence and experience. “Nothing will be well known without experience.” “Experience is twofold: man, or philosophy, dependent on external sensations, and inner vision, or divine inspiration. Thus, it is concluded that knowledge is not only spiritual things, but also structural subjects and philosophical sciences. Through such inner experience a state of ecstasy or mysterious knowledge is attained.
Bacon’s scientific attitude is different from the spirit of contemporary science. There are many fantastic ideas and superstitions: astrology is mixed with astronomy, the same can be said of magic and mechanics, alchemy and chemistry; and the twofold doctrine of experience opens its doors to all kinds of possibilities detrimental to the development of the experimental sciences; Bacon observes nature and continues his work in this direction.
The critical philosophy of Rogerus Baco
Rogerus Baco came to the fore with his criticisms of his contemporaries and thinkers before him, and listed four reasons for doing wrong: 1) Surrender to worthless authority, 2) The influence of tradition, 3) Widespread prejudice, 4) Concealment of ignorance with the ostentatious display of knowledge. According to Rogerus Baco, in order to be able to write on philosophical subjects, some fundamental differences had to become clear in order to be aware of the sciences and to put forward a thought suitable for scientific experimentation. First of all, scientists should investigate whether the source from which they derive their thoughts is sound, and they should do this in accordance with the rules of mind. There were four basic sciences to know. Mathematics was key among these sciences. Those who do not know mathematics will not be able to properly communicate with the relationships that make up the world. Mathematics prepares the mind for other sciences and the understanding of the world, and raises it to a certain knowledge of all existing things.
Rogerus Baco does not have a social philosophy per se, but he also dealt with social problems in connection with some theological problems. Moral philosophy is the science that controls and guides man’s relations with himself, his neighbor and God. Therefore, morality is about “human happiness and well-being. This practical aim of moral philosophy places it in the most noble position among the sciences. For Rogerus Baco, philosophy is an academic endeavor that transforms the mind, which is used as a tool on the path to wisdom, into a subtle one. Wisdom was given to the prophets and the high-ranking people of the church. Therefore, theology is a universal virtue that encompasses all sciences. This universal virtue resides entirely in God himself and is revealed to people through him. Ethics and education, which should be given under the shadow of theology, will shape such a universal virtue and create a universal society. Rogerus Baco’s greatest dream is a society in which people united around a common faith are ruled by a single man. Augustine said that this society would emerge only in heaven, and Rogerus Baco believed that such a society would form on earth.
– Bacon’s life and works
– What is Bacon’s critical philosophy?
– Bacon’s moral philosophy and understanding of society
Prepared by: Sociologist Ömer YILDIRIM
Source: Omer YILDIRIM’s Personal Lecture Notes. Atatürk University Sociology Department 1st Year “Introduction to Philosophy” and 2nd, 3rd, 4th Grade “History of Philosophy” Lecture Notes (Ömer YILDIRIM); Open Education