Who is Rosa Luxemburg (Rosa Luxemburg)?June 26, 2021
Rosa Luxemburg was a Polish-born German Marxist political theorist, philosopher and revolutionary who lived from March 5, 1871 to January 15, 1919.
Born in Poland on March 5, 1871 (according to some sources, 1870) to a Jewish family, Luxemburg met socialism at a younger age and took part in the leftist groups of the period. At the age of 18, he had to flee to Switzerland because of the groups he was involved in and his political views. In 1889, he entered the University of Zurich, where he studied philosophy, history, politics, economics and mathematics, and met names that would have a great impact on his life at this school.
After the abolition of Bismarck’s law banning social democracy in 1890, Luxemburg, who entered the socialist parliament, worked to be more effective in the parliament after the social democrats of the period moved away from the revolutionary end. This distancing disturbed those in the revolutionary line of sight, including Rosa Luxemburg. Meanwhile, Rosa, who continued to study in Zurich, completed her doctorate in 1898. Continuing to work for a free Poland, the picture in Rosa’s mind is that Poland will be free if there is a revolution in Germany, Austria and Russia. This picture caused the Polish socialist groups and the Polish Socialist Party, which drew a nationalist line, to distance themselves even more. Later, these views will lead to the deterioration of his relations with Russian socialist circles.
Luxemburg, who married Gustav Lübeck in 1898 and moved to Berlin, gained German citizenship. She has been an active member of the spd (Social Democratic Party of Germany) she. By 1900, Luxemburg’s ideas aroused great repercussions in socialist circles all over Europe, and his articles attracted attention. Especially Rosa, who came to the fore with her criticisms of Eduard Bernstein’s thoughts, was very disturbed by the rising value of German militarism and contradicted the party on this issue. Between 1904 and 1906, she was imprisoned three times for her political activities and views. The prison sentences she received did not intimidate her, she continued her activities. She started teaching economics and Marxism in the training centers of the SPD.
The nationalist wind blowing with the start of the war caused the SPD to turn to a nationalist trend. This completely contradicted Luxemburg’s ideas, and for this reason Rosa cut off all contact with the party. On August 5, 1914, she founded the Internationale group with Karl Liebknecht. On January 1, 1916, the name of the group was changed to the Spartacus Union (Spartakists – Spartakusbund in German). Because of the group’s anti-state attitude, Luxemburg was sentenced to prison on 28 June 1916. She wrote many articles during her years in prison. His criticisms of the Russian revolution and the Bolsheviks, in particular, are striking.
In November 1918 Luxemburg was released from prison. He continued his activities and, together with Liebknecht, founded the German Communist Party. On January 15, 1919, Rosa Luxemburg, Karl Liebknecht and Wilhelm Pieck were arrested by the Freikorps. Pieck managed to escape, while Luxemburg and Liebknecht lost consciousness from the blows they received. On the same day, Luxemburg was beaten to death and her body was thrown into the river, and Liebknecht was killed by bullets in the head.
Source: Atatürk University Department of Sociology Lecture Notes for Grade 1 “Introduction to Philosophy” and Grade 3 “History of Contemporary Philosophy” (Ömer YILDIRIM)