Who is Şahabeddin Sühreverdî Maktûl?June 26, 2021
Şahabeddin Sühreverdî Maktûl, or with all his name and surname Ebu’l-Fütûh Şahabeddin Yahya bin Habeş bin Emîrek Sühreverdî Maktûl (1115-1191), is a famous Islamic philosopher and the founder of the intellectual movement called Israkilik.
His real name is Yahya bin Habeş bin Emîrek. He was called Şahabeddin or Şihâbeddin, inspired by the star of Şihâb, because of his knowledge on many subjects, and as Sühreverdî because he was born in Sühreverd. Since he was executed by being executed, Maktûl was added to his tag after Suhrawardi. He was called Ebu’l-Fütûh because of the depth of his spiritual life and his work on this subject. Another important name, his contemporary and relative, is Şihabeddin Ömer Sühreverdî, care is taken to distinguish these two people and to be mentioned with the tag of Maktûl.
In the first years of his education, Sühreverdî was close to the Peripatetic school, improved himself on this subject and wrote some works. He also stated this tendency in the early days in his later works on illumination, which is his own philosophy. After completing his education, he went to visit many regions and exchanged ideas with some important names of the period. He explained that during this time he had various experiences that would form the basis of his philosophy. Again at this time, his name was heard, he became close to the palace circles and he gave lectures to many important statesmen.
The success of Suhrawardi, whose star began to shine in Anatolia, caused various people to oppose him, and as a result, many people emerged who argued that he should be killed. Finally, by the decision of an Aleppo jurist, Suhrawardi was executed in 1191.
Although there are different opinions about the sources affecting the Illuminationism, it is based on Neoplatonism in its essentials. In terms of method, the most important feature of israqism different from Peripateticism and other philosophical movements based on the Aristotelian tradition is the thought that the truth cannot be reached through the mind, and that the only way to reach the truth is a kind of spiritual intuitionism. According to illumination, truth can only be reached with the heart and illumination. It can be said that illumination is somewhere between the peripatetic tradition and the Sufi tradition in the intellectual plane. Unlike the Sufi tradition, ishraqism does not accept temptation and shakr.
Ishraq both forms the cornerstone of this philosophy and gives the philosophy its name. Ishraq, an Arabic word, has the meanings of “East, pertaining to light, related to light”. Suhrawardi explains the realm on a vertical plane, in his system of direction, the East is the place of pure light and angels, completely stripped of materiality; The West is the world of materiality. It is the point where light and darkness meet in the middle of these two directions. This holy direction – holy order idea was greatly influenced by Ancient Persian sources. Suhrawardi defined light as light, the ore of truth. According to him, comprehension occurs when the light creates an enlightenment of consciousness, and it is the light that enables us to grasp things. But the knowledge that comes from direct light is superhuman because it comes from God. Thus, if someone has access to that information, they can perform miracles and intervene in existence and events; the veil of secrecy has been lifted for that person. In these respects, ishraqism approaches the Sufi tradition. Irrational intuition – spiritual intuition has been used with different meanings in different places in ishraqism.
These thoughts of Suhrawardi were criticized by Sunni circles and major sects of creed, on the grounds that they contradicted the Islamic creed and were regarded as irreligious.
Sühreverdi combined rational thinking and intuitive thinking in his own philosophy. Rational knowledge is important and it is possible to approach intuitive knowledge with it, but rational knowledge alone is not enough because existence is far beyond our rational patterns.
The concept of the history of philosophy attracted great attention of Suhrawardi and his school. Suhrawardi equates philosophy with Wisdom rather than rational systematization. Philosophy does not begin with Plato and Aristotle, but ends with them. Aristotle limited his perspective by putting wisdom into a rational mold and separated it from the unifying wisdom of the early sages. In the Ishraqi view, the prophet Hermes or Idris is the father of philosophy and received it as revelation. Idris is followed by the sages of Greece and Persia, and the sages of Islam, who combined the wisdom of previous civilizations in himself.
Suhrawardi was also influenced by Zoroastrian teaching (especially in angelology and symbolizing light and darkness). He saw the wisdom of the ancient Zoroastrian sages as the same as that of Hermes, and hence of the pre-Aristotelian philosophers, especially Pythagoras and Plato. As a result, he was influenced by the vast tradition of Hermeticism, which merged with the remnants of ancient Egyptian, Chaldean and Sabian doctrines in a Hellenistic matrix. Another source that influenced Suhrawardi is Sufi wisdom. In particular, he took a lot from Hallaj and Ghazali, whom he often mentions.
Suhrawardi believes in the traditional distinction between body and soul. The body represents darkness to him, the soul the light, and the soul