Who is Saint Simon?June 26, 2021
Saint Simon is a French philosopher and economist who is known as the father of thought of sociology in the history of thought.
Saint-Simon aimed to reform the society and argued that the industrial age of the society should be arranged according to the requirements of the industry.
The biggest dream of Saint-Simon, who is also known as the founder of positivism, has been the reform of human society, as he claims that the time has come to establish a social science based on scientific thought and that the age of positive science has begun.
According to him, the French Revolution did not bring happiness. The proclamation of universal human rights, according to Saint-Simon, did not abolish the ignorance and poverty of the lower classes.
Believing that the happiness of all people in the society can be achieved through a new social arrangement, a social reform, Saint-Simon thought that the reform to be realized in society is based on the knowledge of social laws and this requires a reform in the sciences. Therefore, his philosophy primarily deals with the subject of society and emerges as a social philosophy.
According to Saint-Simon, who sees society as an organism and examines the evolution of this organism, there is an element of interest at the root of society. He says that the people of a society do not approach each other haphazardly. People come together as a society only when a situation of interest arises.
Society, according to Saint Simon, is established by consensus as a result of the element of interest. The establishment of a society depends on the existence of a social bond that is the result of interest and therefore the formation of a collective conscience.
According to Saint-Simon, humans are not only original beings of their own, but also subject to the determinism prevailing in nature. Like the law of the center of gravity in physics and chemistry, there is a law of progress that governs societies. The task of sociology is to demonstrate the existence of this law and teach people to obey it. For, according to Saint-Simon, the people did not set this law.
We see this law of progress in political, moral, economic, etc. events. This is why sociology is an observational science that adopts the historical method. By explaining this law of progress in a regular way, he tried to obtain the general laws of the social and political evolution of European civilization.
SAINT SIMON’S UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIETY
According to Saint-Simon, who argues that the social history of man has passed through three different stages, namely polytheism/slavery, theism/feudalism and positivism/industrialism, respectively, to which different ways of thinking correspond, the laws of social change and order can be found through positivism.
The chief task of society, according to him, is to develop production that multiplies the objects necessary for living; because happiness is achieved only in this way.
In the new order, he understands the society, that is, those who work in the field of industry will rule. He wants to tell about those who work in the field of industry, those who deal with those crafts, farmers, manufacturers, bankers who participate in production with the loans they have made for investments, and experts in various fields of production.
Management of society by industry workers. it will lift the poor out of their poverty; According to him, production that will be regulated by science and reason will raise all workers in all respects.
Everyone will get their share from the production as long as they work and fulfill their duties. Those who manage production, according to Saint-Simon, will rule the people not according to their pleasure, but according to the requirements of developing production. A new religion that will explain their duties to the public and scholars who will enlighten the society will prevent these rulers from misusing their duties, deceiving the people.
In this case, although banks, factories and finance experts will be at the head of the economic and political administration, there will be science and art experts at the head of jobs such as faith and education.
The new religion should be one based on brotherhood and love, and should be free from all superstitions. In other words, according to Saint-Simon, who argues that the direction and order of modern society is determined by scientists and industrialists, not by unproductive bureaucrats, the crisis in modern society can also be resolved with a new religion based on positivism.
SAINT SIMON’S UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENCE
On the subject of science, he says that all sciences have hitherto started with unscientific methods and steps. Moreover, every science is loaded with some religious ideas and metaphysical assumptions.
In the era of Saint-Simon, real science, positive science, was replaced by an unreal science that had a theological basis and was developed with metaphysical concepts at the beginning. According to him, the factor that ensures progress is the cleansing of science from these elements that were mixed in it at the beginning. Saint-Simon says that now the age of positive science has begun.
Industry was founded on the scientific organization of work. Production is organized in a way that will provide the most efficiency with organization instead of habits.
Factory of industrial production